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The national security council

2018-11-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The national security council,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国国家安全委员会。二战前,美国长期奉行孤立主义。然而,二战后美国以国家安全委员会的创建为主要特征,在政府体制、国家安全观念和总体政治发展趋势上发生了剧烈的转向。二战和冷战的开始重新塑造了以美国国家安全委员会为轴心的美国国家安全体制。作为总统制定国家安全政策的主要平台,国家安全委员会已成为美国国家安全政策的中心。

national security council,美国国家安全委员会,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The United States had long been an isolationist before World War II. However, after World War II, the United States, with the establishment of the national security council as the main feature, experienced a sharp turn in government system, national security concept and overall political development trend. The beginning of the World War II and the cold war reshaped the U.S. national security system centered on the U.S. national security council. As the President's main platform for formulating national security policy, the national security council has become the center of U.S. national security policy. Here, this paper attempts to analyze the reasons for the birth of the national security council from the following aspects.

On December 7, 1941, as the smoke of war broke out at Pearl Harbor, the United States rushed into World War II. In this age of new long-range weapons, the United States has learned that "neutrality" cannot protect itself, and that the sea is no longer a natural defense for the homeland.

World War II shook up America's traditional national security and exposed many serious institutional problems. During the war, the United States government's military command system, governmental organization system and decision-making process were all in trouble, especially the lack of coordination between the services, the military and diplomatic departments, and the lack of the mobilization of domestic resources necessary for the war. When the army and navy are separated, there is only one joint army and navy commission to coordinate and coordinate the two services. Therefore, during the war, there were many institutional changes or temporary organizational changes in the government and the army. For example, in February 1942, the President of the United States used his wartime prerogative to establish the joint chiefs of staff in the wake of the British, to assist the President in commanding the joint army and navy operations. In December 1944, the coordination committee of the state department-war department-navy department was established to coordinate the views of the three departments on issues related to political and military affairs. However, due to the defects of the system itself, the departments in these mechanisms still tend to solve their own problems from their own point of view, unable to dismiss the interests of the departments and integrate the diplomatic and military at a higher level.

At the same time, the global war made the United States realize that after the war, "national security" would become a "high politics" above all government affairs. A country must be placed under the framework of the international system, which is the best way to protect its own security. National security is not only limited to homeland security, but also needs to actively promote American values to the international community through development forces, otherwise it can only be in a passive position. To adapt to the new situation, the reorganization of institutions is imperative.

In the American history before World War II, the relationship between the President and the congress is balanced. No party of the President and the congress is always in the position of dominating foreign policy, and the achievement of dominant status is changing with the constant change of political environment. During World War II, due to inherent defects such as large personnel, decentralization of power and slow decision-making speed, it was difficult for congress to make timely foreign decisions. Therefore, congress often transferred diplomatic power to the President, and the presidential power was expanded.

Franklin Roosevelt became President in 1933. He is a President who likes to handle politics through informal, AD hoc institutions. In 1939, under the government reorganization act, Roosevelt established the "executive office of the President," an agency whose staff served the President's needs. Due to the complexity of affairs, Roosevelt soon expanded the size of the "executive office of the President" to become the President's aides and advisers, and relied on these non-fixed, flexible and adaptable bodies for daily administration. The President did not make it into a designed role, despite the creation during the war of coordination between services such as the joint chiefs of staff. This approach provided great convenience for Roosevelt to run the government for national administration, but it also brought great hidden trouble -- the formal institutional structure did not play its due role, and even caused chaos in the institutions and administrative personnel. Many top leaders do not want this chaotic organization to continue. Roosevelt died in April 1945, President Truman hastily took over, to a secret decision made after Roosevelt knew little, and his own lack of necessary professional knowledge and experience to deal with the end of the second world war, the cold war after the launch of the chaos of the international and domestic situation, as a result, congress is an urgent need to a coordination mechanism, to limit the power of the President at the same time, to help the President to the challenge.

The World War I has completely broken the world pattern centered on Europe for a long time. The world history has shifted from the old era dominated by European powers to a new era with a bipolar pattern. The us-soviet bloc confrontation has become a new feature of the international system. After World War I, the United States tried to interfere in the world order but failed. This time, the unreachable comprehensive national strength enabled the United States to dominate the international order in the way of realizing its own interests.

On February 22, 1946, the U.S. ambassador to Sue George Kennan agents to the state department sent a cable up to 8000 words. In "long electricity", Kennan analyzed the strategy of the post-war Soviet union. He believed that the basic goal of American foreign policy must be: first, to defend national security and enable the country to always pursue its internal development without being threatened by serious foreign interference or interference. The second way to advance the well-being of one's own people is by promoting the formation of a world order in which one country can make the greatest contribution to the peaceful and orderly development of other countries and derive the greatest benefit from their experience and capabilities. Chang 'e pointed out that the Soviet union's perception of the world and its behavior originated from Russia's traditional insecurity, which was justified by marxist ideology. Ideological conflict led the United States to view the Soviet union as a threat to its own interests. In order to restrain the Soviet union as much as possible, enhance national security and seek world hegemony, it is necessary to establish a multi-level coordination mechanism so as to make efficient decisions at the strategic level and remedy the defects in the traditional diplomatic system and national security system.

Under the above the comprehensive factors, on July 26, 1947, congress passed the state security law, established the United States after the war of the whole security system, including military and diplomatic, one of the most important is the establishment of the national security council, the agency development process reflects the basic form, the political process in government, ideology and so on various aspects of change.

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