代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

British mercantilist policy

2018-11-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British mercantilist policy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的重商主义政策。重商主义政策是大英帝国得以建立和扩张的基础,而《航海条例》则是这一政策的具体运用和体现。除了《航海条例》外,英国的其他一些政策也对于殖民地的商品生产和销售做出了一些规定。根据这些重商主义的政策,英国对北美建立殖民地的根本目的是为了加强母国的力量和增加宗主国的财富,使殖民地成为母国的原料产地和产品销售市场,而不是为了殖民地本身的发展。

mercantilist policy,英国重商主义政策,essay代写,作业代写,代写

For a long time, in the history teaching, we are always used to students with British mercantilism policy is how to restrict the economic development of North America 13 states, to the north American colonies into its raw material origin and dumping goods market, thus aroused the colonists revolt, and eventually led to the outbreak of the American war of independence, and so on. However, from the actual effect, the British policy on the North American colonies was quite loose, and the navigation regulations, as a concrete manifestation of mercantilism, also protected the development of the colonial economy in a certain sense. Therefore, we need to make a specific analysis of the actual effect of British mercantilist policies on the economic development of North America, instead of a general generalization and a simple negation.

Mercantilism is published in 1776, Adam Smith's "the wealth of nations" in the first time and the use of a concept is put forward. As an economic policy system and theory, it emerged in the 15th century and was gradually abandoned in the 18th century. The early mercantilist doctrine represented a kind of "monetarism", which was committed to encouraging the inflow of gold and silver and strictly controlling the outflow of gold and silver so as to achieve the goal of accumulating money in the country. Such a "miser" policy is not really good for business. Spain is a model. Britain and France, of course, is not a result is the "advanced" mercantilism, in earlier times, they, like Spain, but then was a "real mercantilism", namely, the late mercantilism, Thomas mencius is the representative of this thought. In "Britain's wealth from foreign trade", published in 1664, meng criticized the early monetarism and advocated active trade policies. Such mercantilism advocates promoting the development of domestic industry, improving and expanding domestic and foreign trade, selling more and buying less, and obtaining gold and silver mainly through trade surplus.

The mercantilist policy was the basis for the establishment and expansion of the British empire, and the navigation ordinance was the concrete application and embodiment of this policy. In 1651, Britain issued the first navigation ACTS, which stipulated that goods from the colonies to England must be carried by British ships. The second regulation of navigation, adopted in 1660, although an adjustment was made to the regulation of 1651, which provided that foreign ships could carry goods from the producing countries to the British market, still prohibited foreign ships from carrying goods to and from the British colonies. The amendment adopted in 1661 further stipulated that certain products of the colony must be shipped to England, including sugar, tobacco, indigo and cotton; After 1704, rice, sugar syrup, navigational supplies, beaver pelts and copper were added to guarantee the home country's absolute control over colonial raw materials and markets.

The navigation ACTS of 1663 and 1673 further provided that even goods from English ships to the colonies were first shipped to England, and then shipped to the colonies on duty.

In addition to the navigation act, other British policies also provided for the production and sale of colonial goods. For example, in order to protect domestic wool production and add 152 industries, the wool act of 1699 prohibited the sale of wool and woolen products to the British mainland. The cap making act of 1732 prohibited the sale of hats to the British crown. The iron act of 1750 prohibited the manufacture of iron in North America, and so on. Moreover, in addition to the provisions of these decrees, many British politicians and dignitaries had repeatedly made "high arguments" against the development of industries in which the colonies competed with their home countries. As the British Sir Chatham shouted in the early 18th century, "If America decides to make a riding boot or a nail, I will mobilize all the strength of Britain against it."

Undoubtedly, according to these mercantilist policies, the fundamental purpose of the British colonization of North America was to strengthen the power of the mother country and increase the wealth of the suzerain country, so that the colony became the source of raw materials and sales market of the mother country, rather than for the development of the colony itself. From the point of view of the British rulers, it was reasonable that the colonies were completely subject to the needs of their home country. The development of colonial commerce and trade must be based on the British interests. The official of the British ministry of commerce made it clear: "in any colony, all beneficial plans or commercial benefits must be understood to be illegal if they do harm the interests and inconsistencies of the home country, and their practice is not guaranteed, as they violate the purpose of establishing the colony... If the colonies cannot be used in this way, then it is better for the country to have no colonies.

Although Britain establish colonies is designed to grow and development of home countries, made all sorts of restrictions to the development of the colonies, but an inevitable fact remains that the development of the north American colonies was very prosperous, formed with the development of resources not only the characteristics of diversified forms of export-oriented economy, and entrepreneurship has been formed, manufacturing began to sprout, which laid a foundation for the vigorous development of the economy in the future. Britain's mercantilist policies though, in principle is opposed to compete with home industry colony development, but the European colonial merchants not only produce the goods to the British colonies, so long as they are not selling any items listed in the UK, so trade anywhere in the western hemisphere were not in violation of the navigation ACTS. Mercantilist regulations may inhibit the export of certain goods, such as grain, and may limit the industrial production of the colonies, but in general the colonies flourished. Of course, restrictions are a nuisance, but in most cases they are not followed at all. Adam Smith, as well as many in the United States of the early studies of scholars agree that: before the revolution of mercantilism did not cause larger bound to colonial America's economic development.

First, Britain's colonial policy towards North America was relatively loose politically. The North American colonies were originally developed by chartered companies or private owners, and the British government did not directly intervene in their overseas colonization except for commercial control. Therefore, the northern colonies enjoyed considerable freedom in their internal affairs, especially at the beginning. Historian Charles ? Andrews in comparing the two countries with a colonial policy after think: the "rarely interfere in the internal affairs of each colony for population flow, government aid and maintain things rarely concerned." In addition, the settlers who migrated to North America did not consider themselves inferior rulers, but British overseas subjects, who not only transplanted British cultural traditions, but also used the British legal system to justify their actions.

Secondly, the navigation regulations had some protective effect on the development of colonial economy. First, the navigation act provided that only British ships could develop trade with the colonies, and north American merchants were granted the same monopoly in the market as British merchants, in effect securing protection in the international market. "The British navigation regulations provided a protected international market for the American colonists, under which each colony was relatively free to develop its own internal economy," says gundsson, author of a new edition of American economic history. It was under this powerful umbrella that the colonial shipping industry grew. Good harbors, plentiful resources, and an open mind and a sense of adventure inherited from the British, led New England merchants to quickly become involved in world trade. The merchants of New England were almost all over the world. They transported the products of North America to Europe, brought home the European manufactured goods they needed, engaged in the slave trade in the triangle, and opened up the little triangle trade with the west Indies. New England traders brought slaves, dried fish, timber, horses, beef, and grain to the west Indies, where they brought back sugar and the European sugar syrup that was a vital ingredient in the manufacture of rum, the most important commodity in the exchange for Indian pelts. The shipping industry was a very important sector in North America at the time, and it became a major source of capital accumulation in the United States. It is estimated that by the 1770s, Philadelphia merchants had amassed a fortune of 500,000 pounds from shipping alone. There were such wealthy businessmen as cooper of New York and Hancock of Boston.

Secondly, some industries suitable for Britain's needs in the colonies were not only not limited by Britain, but also supported and helped by Britain. In order to encourage the colonies to produce some of the products needed at home, Britain subsidized some of the products badly needed in the domestic market, which objectively benefited the colonies in developing the industries of these subsidized products. At the end of the colonial period, the 13 colonies received an average annual subsidy of more than 65,000 pounds from Britain. The colonial gradually developed an export-oriented and diversified industrial structure characterized by resource development under the category of British mercantilism, and the manufacturing industry began to sprout. Of particular note are the timber, shipbuilding, and iron smelting industries.

North America was rich in forest resources that were strategically important to Britain at the time. Before the mid-19th century, the use of wood for shipbuilding was of strategic importance to a nation's maritime hegemony. But there is a shortage of good quality shipbuilding, especially mast wood. To ensure its maritime supremacy, Britain naturally had to pay attention to the strategic stock of timber used in shipbuilding. In this case, the timber processing trade in the colonies developed. In 1653, the first ships of mast wood from North America arrived at the British naval shipyard. Since then, the British navy's masts have relied almost entirely on North American supplies for more than a century. In addition, the timber trade between New England and the west Indies grew. Since the imports and exports of the West Indies were mostly wooden barrels, the sheeting became a major trade between New England and the west Indies, which required about a million sheeting and about 36 million cubic feet of timber a year.

High quality shipbuilding wood in North America, as well as other readily available shipbuilding materials in forests such as asphalt and rosin, have prepared the conditions for the development of the local shipbuilding industry. The regulations on navigation, which provided that only British and colonial ships were eligible for trade between Britain and its colonies, promoted the development of the shipbuilding industry in both their own countries and colonies. Shipbuilding increased by 150 percent in Massachusetts from 1669 -- 1704 to 1769 -- 1771. Between 1763 and 1775, the 13 states of North America produced an average of 40,000 tons per year, worth 300,000 pounds, of which about 140,000 pounds were exported each year. By the eve of the American revolution, about a third of the ships flying the British flag were built in North America.

Although opposition to the development of manufacturing in the colonies could be heard in Britain, "during most of the colonial period, the king of England paid close attention to the efforts of the colonists in North America to make pig iron, because the charcoal used for iron smelting in Britain was insufficient and pig iron became expensive". In the early 1640 s, the little John Winthrop in Massachusetts Lynn to build the first iron works, produce 8 tons per week. According to statistics, in 1770, the colony exported 133,079 tons of milling iron and 1716 tons of iron bars. In 1775, the colonies produced about one-seventh of the world's pig iron.

Thirdly, we need to make an objective analysis of the implementation of certain restrictive regulations of British mercantilism in the north American colonies. When the provisions of the navigation act were consistent with the interests of the colonies, the colonists did as they were required. When there was a conflict, the colonists went their own way. For example, although the navigation act prohibited north American merchants from shipping certain products to areas outside the United Kingdom, colonial merchants simply ignored it and developed a vast smuggling trade. Britain has adopted a policy of "polite neglect". It was even thought that by the 1850s it would be difficult to find a merchant in a northern colony who was not involved in smuggling. It is estimated that a third of Boston's trade, particularly with the West Indies, was against a law in 1700. Hancock, a leading figure of the American revolution, was a famous smuggling king who amassed a huge fortune of more than $400,000 from shipping and smuggling.

To sum up, despite the restrictive regulations of British mercantilism, the north American colonies initially formed an export-oriented economic development model with regional diversity. It not only broke away from the west India and Latin America in its development path, but also initially formed the economic differences among different regions. It was only in the mid-18th century, when new ideas and interest groups pushed the British parliament to change its policies, to try to limit the import of foreign manufactured goods, to encourage the export of manufactured goods, and to threaten the colony's prosperity, that the two sides' ties weakened. Indeed, Britain's attempts to tighten its grip on the colonies since 1733 have not been purely mercantilist. From 1600 to 1700, the population of the 13 colonies in North America increased fivefold to 275,000 and by 2.25 million before independence. A social economy of prosperity, affluence, openness and diversity has been firmly established here. Based on 1980 prices, the per-capita income of the colony in 1774 was $804, and the per-capita ownership of property was 76 pounds, equivalent to $2,888 at comparable prices in 1973. Therefore, some scholars believe that "the American revolution is not the result of people's poverty, nor is it the reflection of poverty, but the typical example of rich thoughts and changes." Therefore, we need to make an objective and historical analysis of the actual role of British mercantilist policies in the north American colonies to avoid generalizations.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创essay代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的essay代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多essay代写范文 提供代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:The national security council 下一篇:Us interest rate liberalizatio