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Conscious Experience Seen as Basic to Ontology--论文代写范文精选

2016-01-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due论文代写网精选essay代写范文:“Conscious Experience Seen as Basic to Ontology ”理想主义者的态度,在这篇哲学essay代写范文中,是基于这样一个假设,只有意识经验是真实的。有意识的经验应该是直接或直觉。我认为它是所有本体的基础。意识是作为现在的意识经验,意识的本体直接从基础派生。自然的本体更间接地来自基础。科学被认为是一个选定的观点,意识经验认为是科学的和结构化的概念和理论,物质被认为是启发式的概念。

在这篇essay代写范文中,试图阐述一个理想主义本体,探讨现在只有意识经验是真实的。这挑战当前占主导地位的自然科学唯物主义本体论。下面的essay代写范文进行阐述。

Abstract
The idealist attitude followed in this paper is based on the assumption that only conscious experience in the Now is real. Conscious experience in the Now is supposed to be known directly or intuitively, it can not be explained. I think it constitutes the basis of all ontology. Consciousness is conceived as the total of conscious experience in the Now, the ontology of consciousness is thus derived directly from the basis. The ontology of nature is derived more indirectly from the basis. Science is regarded as a catalog of selected conscious experiences (observations), acknowledged to be scientific and structured by means of concepts and theories (also regarded as conscious experiences). Material objects are regarded as heuristic concepts constructed from the immediate experiences in the Now and useful for expressing observations within a certain domain with some of their mutual relations. 
Key-words : Idealist philosophy; ontology of: consciousness, nature, and history; intersubjectivity; collective conscious experience; egolessness

Introduction
In preceding papers the author has tried to expound an idealist ontology stating that only conscious experience in the Now is real. This challenges the currently dominant materialist ontology in the natural sciences, nevertheless it does maintain the methodological presupposition that all scientific research - materialist, idealist, or dualist - rests on empirical observations from which concepts and theories are derived (Randrup 1997, 1999, 2002). In this ontology, or philosophy the immediate conscious experience in the psychological Now is fundamental, and I shall therefore begin with this topic and from that develop the ontology of consciousness, nature, intersubjectivity, history. worlds without an ego, and worlds comprising spiritual experiences.

A number of time studies and psychological experiments indicate that the psychological Now is experienced with a certain temporal extension and therefore differs from the physical moment or point of time, which is regarded as infinitesimal with zero duration. Thus the psychologist Rubin (1934) performed experiments with " two very short sound stimuli in the outer physical world succeeding one another." When the interval between the two sound stimuli was short, a fifth of a second (in physical time), Rubin's immediate experience was:Quite contrary to our general notion of time, the experience does not occur that one of the sounds is present and that the other belongs either to the just expected future or to the immediate past. Either both of them are past or both of them are future or both of them have the character of being present, althoughthey are experienced as a succession.

I find that Rubin's results stand out for their clarity and significance. Searching the literature I have found no direct replication, continuation or critique of Rubins work, but there are several authors who concur with Rubin in assuming that the perceptual or experiential Now possesses extension. Fraisse (1975) has, like Rubin performed many phenomenological observations and experiments on the psychology of time, and he thinks that our perception of change is characterized by the integration of successive stimuli in such a way that they can be perceived with relative simultaneity (p. 12). He also states that when he hears the tick-tock from a clock, the tick is not yet part of his past, when he hears the tock, so the order of the tick and the tock is perceived directly (pp. 72-73, 117).

The Ontology of Nature Including Mind - Brain Relations

The dominant ontology of the Western scientific culture is materialist realism which assumes that what scientific theories describe is a material world existing independent of human consciousness and cognition. This view has proved useful and productive within a certain, large domain of the study of nature, but it has been contested by many philosophers (Knight 2001; Randrup 1997, with references), and a number of scientific findings made in the 20th century have been difficult to accomodate in this ontology. Thus neuropsychologists now contend that our cognitive capacities and therefore also our cognitions depend on our brain, and this contradicts the assumption that nature as described by science should be basically independent of human cognition. The same contradiction appears in the study of evolution and cognition (evolutionary epistemology) and has been discussed within this discipline. Other examples of contradictions and problems consequential to the assumption of a world "out there" are found within the disciplines second order cybernetics, statistics, and physics (Randrup 1997 and submitted). 

Doubts about the materialist ontology (or realism) have been expressed by various physicists. Thus Laszlo (1996, p. 32) writes: "As of today the mainstream theorists of the quantum world have not succeeded in giving an unambigous answer to the question, 'what is matter?' ". And Barrow (1988, p.16) states: "It appears that science is best done by believing that realism is true, even if in fact it isn't" . The newer theories involving superstrings and supermembranes have made the doubts still more disturbing. These theoretical entities, extremely small, are believed to be fundamental constituents of matter, but direct effects of them can not be assessed experimentally, and the belief in their existence rests on the usefulness of the theories in which they are embedded. They may therefore be conceived as heuristic theoretical concepts rather than pieces of matter, and the superstring theories have been regarded as mathematical philosophy rather than physics (Brown 1991, Nathan 2000). 

A clear and radical position was taken by Lindsay and Margenau (1949, p. 1) who begin their book "Foundations of Physics" with the statement: "Physics is concerned with a certain portion of human experience". This expresses an idealist conception of physics, and at the same time an extension of the usual conceptions of consciousness to embrace also the domain of physics. These authors find that the belief in a real material world behind our senseperceptions may tend to encourage too close adherence to reasonably successful physical theories with too small allowance for their necessary revision to meet the demands of new experience (p. 3).

In the idealist ontology proposed here, science is regarded as a catalog of selected conscious experiences (observations) acknowledged to be scientific and structured by means of concepts and theories (also regarded as conscious experiences). Material objects are thus regarded as heuristic concepts useful for expressing observations within a certain domain with some of their mutual relations. This reinterpretation of materialist objects allows a direct understanding and use of traditional scientific theories without accepting their ontology (Marshall 2001, p. 60, Randrup 1997, section 4). The idealist ontology emphasizes the role of the evidence in science and is particularly open to new theories and to the application of more than one theory and set of concepts to a domain of observations (Lindsay and Margenau 1949, pp. 1-3, Randrup 1992, 1994, 1997b, Wallace 1996, pp. 25-27, 113-114,148-150, 190).

The idealist ontology of nature also readily accomodates the intense nature experiences known as nature spirituality (Randrup 1997). These intense, direct nature-experiences are felt by the experient to be essential and important, indicating that they must be real and that nature primarily is an experience. These experiences are thus felt to be in conflict with the materialist view that nature exists separated from and independent of the "observer". Also on more secular ground many people resist the alienation from nature entailed by strict materialist realism, and tend to retain naive (or direct) realism, where material nature is believed to be as perceived.

Harner goes on stating that the shaman does not regard these non-ordinary phenomena as a projection of his own mind, but rather as another reality which exists independently of that mind. Harner's own view on the ontology of this "other reality" is more cautious as expressed later in the same paper (p. 15): "As a person who has followed the path of shamanism for a long time, I am inclined to think that there is more to the universe than the human mind". (Italics by the present author).

These two views, the alternate world as an independent external reality or as a mental projection are described and discussed in the literature by several authors (Peters 1989, p. 118, Peters and Price-Williams 1980, pp. 405-406, Turner 1992, Vaughan 1995, p. 7, Walsh 1989, pp. 30-31, Wautischer 1989, Wiebe 2000). This problem is completely parallel to the problem about the ontology of the material world in modern science: does it exist independentally "out there", or is it rather a mental projection or heuristic concept based on regularities in the occurrence of the immediate experiences ? In science the view of an external material reality has run into contradictions as described above. An idealist ontology based on conscious experiences seems to be a more viable alternative, but this does not mean that we can control the processes of sense experiences at will (Berger and Luckman 1966, Introduction, p. 1, Diettrich !995, pp. 96, 103-105, Randrup submitted) and the same seems to be true for shamanic experiences. The shamanic world view as well as the scientific can be seen as mental constructs useful for structuring the immediate experiences in the Now.(essay代写)

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