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Essay写作如何使用材料让自己观点更具说服力

2017-06-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

留学生在写作Essay的时候,少不了引用别人的材料来支持我们的观点。而在引用的过程中,如何让这些材料展示说服力无疑是关键。但是要记住,这些材料只能支持你的观点,而并不能成为你的观点。下面就给大家讲解一下Essay写作该如何使用材料让自己的观点更具说服力。

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引用要恰当

首先,直接引用不能太多!直接引用诱惑力比较大,因为能够凑字数,但是在学术写作的时候,一定要强调自己的观点,用自己的话语去总结、同意转述你的材料,并且用自己的话去解释你想要表达的点。当然了,在以下几种情况下直接引用会非常有效:

原文非常生动具体,有表达力的时候

专有词汇

辩论者介绍自己立场的时候

权威观点

材料的语言是你论文的话题的时候(如批判性话语研究CDA)

不是很有必要整句话引用,尽量把引用的内容和自己的话结合在一起(引号去掉之后,读者看不出来有什么区别):

Kizza and Ssanyu observe that technology in the workplace has been accompanied by “an array of problems that needed quick answers” such as electronic monitoring to prevent security breaches (4).

另外,如果想要省略引文中的一部分内容们可以使用三个点(三个点之间都有一个空格),如:

Lane acknowledges the legitimate reasons that many companies have for monitoring their employees’ online activities, particularly management’s concern about preventing “the theft of information that can be downloaded to a . . . disk, e-mailed to oneself . . . , or even posted to a Web page for the entire world to see” (12).

如果你引用的句子中,你省略了整个句子,这个时候,在三个省略的点之前,加一个句号,如:

Charles Lewis, director of the Center for Public Integrity, points out that “by 1987, employers were administering nearly 2,000,000 polygraph tests a year to job applicants and employees. . . . Millions of workers were required to produce urine samples under observation for drug testing . . .” (22).

一般不要在引文的最前面或者最后面加省略号,引文读者明白你是在引用,前后省略了很多,但是有例外,像上面的那个例子,如果引言的最后一句,你省略了该句的一部分,这个时候可以用省略号。无论怎么省略,不能够导致断章取义的结果!

在引文中,如果想要插入自己的话(为了使得语法正确或者为读者提供一些背景知识),必须要用中括号标明,如:

Legal scholar Jay Kesan notes that “[a] decade ago, losses [from employees’ computer crimes] were already mounting to five billion dollars annually” (311).

如果看到引文中有错误(如拼写错误),则在错误后面加上 [sic],如:

Johnson argues that “while online monitoring is often imagined as harmles [sic], the practice may well threaten employees’ rights to privacy” (14).

最后,如果引文是一大段(超过三行),这个时候,引文内容整体向右缩进一英寸,不需要加双引号,在引用前,要加一些句子,预示读者你要大段引用,这句话后面应该紧跟着冒号,如:

注意上面引文最后一个句号的位置,它是在括号前面!

引用前要给读者预示

这个预示的短语叫做 signal phrase,预示的句子往往包括引用材料的作者并为读者提供背景知识,并且往往出现在引用的文字之前,但是为了使得你的句子结构多样化,这些短语可以打断引言或者出现在引文后,典型的预示短语有(主语短语的位置):

In the words of researchers Greenfield and Davis, “. . .”

As legal scholar Jay Kesan has noted, “. . .”

The ePolicy Institute, an organization that advises companies about reducing risks from technology, reports that “. . .”

“. . . ,” writes Daniel Tynan, “. . .”

“. . . ,” attorney Schmitt claims.

Kizza and Ssanyu offer a persuasive counterargument: “. . .”

根据你引文的作用,要选用合适的动词(一般使用一般现在时或者现在完成时):

acknowledges  adds  admits  agrees  argues  asserts  believes  claims  comments  compares  confirms  contends  declares  denies  disputes  emphasizes  endorses  grants  illustrates  implies  insists  notes  observes  points out  reasons  refutes  rejects  reports  responds  suggests  thinks  writes

如果没有预示短语,读者会觉得非常变扭,看下面这个例子:

Some experts have argued that a range of legitimate concerns justifies employer monitoring of employee Internet usage. “Employees could accidentally (or deliberately) spill confidential corporate information . . . or allow worms to spread throughout a corporate network” (Tynan).

但是如果加了预示短语,就会变得非常圆滑:

Some experts have argued that a range of legitimate concerns justifies employer monitoring of employee Internet usage. As PC World columnist Daniel Tynan points out, “Employees could accidentally (or deliberately) spill confidential corporate information . . . or allow worms to spread throughout a corporate network.”

在议论文中,证据的权威性非常重要,所以在第一次引用的时候,把作者的头衔、资历等都包含进去,如果不包含,就显得苍白,如:

Jay Kesan points out that the law holds employers liable for employees’ actions such as violations of copyright laws, the distribution of offensive or graphic sexual material, and illegal disclosure of confidential information (312).

如果加了头衔、资历,就不一样了:

Legal scholar Jay Kesan points out that the law holds employers liable for employees’ actions such as violations of copyright laws, the distribution of offensive or graphic sexual material, and illegal disclosure of confidential information (312).

另外,如果你的好几句话都是引用同一个材料,没有必要每句话后面都标明出处,可以在第一句开头加上 signal phrase,然后最后一句话后面加上具体的页码,如:

Frederick Lane believes that the personal computer has posed new challenges for employers worried about workplace productivity. Whereas early desktop computers were primitive enough to prevent employees from using them to waste time, the machines have become so sophisticated that they now make non-work-related computer activities easy and inviting. Many employees spend considerable company time customizing features and playing games on their computers. But perhaps most problematic from the employer’s point of view, Lane asserts, is giving employees access to the Internet, “roughly the equivalent of installing a gazillion-channel television set for each employee” (15-16).

如果引用的是数据或者其他的一些事实,预示短语往往没有必要(当然加了也没有问题),因为读者知道你肯定是在引用,如:

Roughly 60% of responding companies reported disciplining employees who had used the Internet in ways the companies deemed inappropriate; 30% had fired their employees for those transgressions (Greenfield and Davis 347).

注意!引用之后,一定要让读者明白,你的引用和你想要表达的观点之间的联系,不能够引用完就结束了,所以你要写几句话,告诉读者,引文对你观点的帮助在哪里。

以上就是关于Essay写作引用别人材料的讲解,同学们要记住,引用了别人的材料之后,一定要写好文献综述。

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