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The theory

2020-04-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

今天这篇论文主要描述的是The theory(伟人理论)中认为能够有助于我们形成正确的世界观和历史观,让我们正式人类文明发展的过去以及未来的,这些人都是伟大的,是人类历史上的伟人,伟人之所以能够对历史做出重要的贡献,这也离不开当时的社会的经济和科技的发展水平。一起来欣赏这篇优秀的文章的吧!

The great man theory is a theory which considers that 'great men' largely impact historical process. There is much controversy about this theory, some scholars affirm and some scholars oppose. How to properly evaluate the great man theory will help to form a correct view of history to correctly treat the development of human history in the past and future. This essay tries to put forward its views on the great man theory, based on the case of Columbus to interpret.

Body

The great man theory was proposed by Thomas Carlyle. He held that history largely depends on the influence of 'great men'. The influential men’s leadership, charm, intelligence, or political means determines historic process to a large extent. (Carlyle, 1888). 

Herbert Spencer opposed the great man theory. He figured that great men are subordinates of their societies, without the social conditions, great men’s actions would be impossible (Carneiro, 1981).

Thomas Carlyle's the great man theory entirely affirms the impact of individual great men on promoting historic process, while Herbert Spencer's conclusion completely negates the influence. There is also a third theory in terms of the great man theory. Leonid (2010) first considered that the impact of great men in the history is under constraints of social and historical conditions. Great men can not change the basic trend of historical development. However, Leonid (2010) also believes that under certain social conditions, great man may have a significant impact on the development of history because of their talent, experience, will, character, quality and physical fitness, etc., marking historical events with profound individual branding or even deciding the outcome of individual historical events.

In this essay, the author thinks that to completely affirm or negate the influence of great men on promoting human history is not correct. The author totally agrees with the theory of the third view. Firstly, generation of great men is the need of the times, they are products of social and historical development. The influence of great men is also subject to certain historical conditions, requiring a certain intellectual, financial and spiritual support to ensure that they can accomplish historic tasks. Columbus's voyages changed the course of world history. It pioneered a new era of history for capitalist countries to develop the New Continent. Columbus could discover the New Continent, which was inseparable from historical conditions at that time. First of all, at that time, Ottoman Turks controlled the trade routes between East and West, the Western society in the 15th century was eager to find a new route to build the trade links between East and West (McAfee, 1983). Columbus appeared to meet the historical demand, if Columbus was not present, there would be other persons who would takethe responsibility of great voyages, it was merely that the time to find the American continent might be postponed. Then, the successful discovery of the American continent by the great voyages of Columbus was closely related to the financial support of the Spanish royal family, and the development of maritime technology at that time (McAfee, 1983). Without these conditions, the great voyages of Columbus might fail. Therefore, the generation of great men is the need of the times, they can not change the basic trend of historical development, and the success of great men are inseparable from the support of social, economic, technological and other conditions.

Secondly, great men are organizers and participants of major historical events, their major decisions often have significant influence on promoting historical process. Columbus’ success relates to his superb sailing experience, technology. He believed in the concept of a spherical earth and he was longing for Eastern wealth. He believed he has the ability to reach the East through a new route. In the case of time when a lot of people opposed and did not believe the successful opening of new routes, Columbus could stick to his own judgment and conviction, under the auspices of the Spanish royal family, he ultimately successfully discovered the New Continent (McAfee, 1983).Columbus’ voyages promoted the earlier discovery of New Continent, accelerating the arrival of the big maritime navigation era. It can be said that Columbus has a very important significance for the opening of new routes.

Conclusion

From the point of view of human history, without Columbus, the American continent would still be discovered by latecomers, the new route would still be very likely to be found by other navigators, such as Vasco da Gama, Magellan later. Columbus could not change the basic trend of historical development, and Magellan’s success was inseparable from the social, economic, technological and other conditions at that time. However, Columbus appeared and greatly accelerated the early discovery of the New Continent and promoted the big maritime navigation era, laying the foundation for the later voyages. Thus it is not comprehensive for the great man theory to alone emphasize the influence of great men for history, great men’ success is inseparable from social, economic, technological and other conditions.

 

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