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Another Form of Modern Slavery: Prostitution

2020-04-17 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文-Another Form of Modern Slavery: Prostitution,供大家参考学习。这篇论文讨论了半边天涵盖了许多性别平等问题,包括卖淫。在许多欠发达国家和地区,妇女受到迫害,其行为受到控制,超出了我们的想象。他们被迫卖淫,妓院采取各种不人道的手段破坏自尊,以确保他们毫无疑问的服从。幸运的是,越来越多的人开始关注这种情况,并向遭受广泛和系统性不平等之苦的妇女(例如尼古拉斯和舍里尔)以及各种组织和机构提供帮助。

 

 

                      Another Form of Modern Slavery: Prostitution

Half the Sky covers many issues of gender equality, including prostitution. In many less developed countries and regions, women are persecuted and their behaviors are controlled to an extent beyond our imagination. They are forced into prostitution and their brothels employ all manner of inhumane methods to destroy their self-esteem to ensure their unquestioning obedience. Fortunately, more people have begun to pay attention to this situation and provide assistance to women who suffer from this extensive and systematic inequality, such as Nicholas and Sheryl, and a variety of organizations and institutions.

Prostitution is closely connected with human trafficking, and the current prohibition is failing mainly because of political divisions and the high frequency of recidivism, yet supporting related social programs and aggressively prosecuting human trafficking will lead to positive results.

I. Relative Status of Prostitution in Developed and Developing Regions

a. Developed regions: Netherlands and the United States

Netherlands

In Europe, due to the advanced lifestyle and the higher acceptance level of different sexual behaviors, many countries have implemented the legalization of prostitution. Its general situation is shown in the picture below.

 

(Resource: Reinschmidt 4)

In 2000, the Netherlands officially legalized prostitution. People believe it would be more effective in preventing juvenile prostitution and forced prostitution, and it is more convenient to provide health check for the prostitutes (Kristof & Wu 32). My interviewee proposed an interesting point of view. She believed that if prostitution was not legalized and the sex workers were not managed well, then prostitution would be socialized. When sex trade fulfills every corner of the society, every woman actually faces greater risks. However, Williams’ report about prostitutes in Holland and argued even in a legal environment they still could not enjoy many rights as they were suppose to have (2017). In addition, there is no evidence to prove that sexually transmitted diseases or HIV infection rates are declining due to the legalization of prostitution. Dutch pimps are still offering underage prostitutes, and forced prostitution and trafficking in human beings remain (Kristof & Wu 33). So far prostitution legalization does not seem to be a very solid solution, but it is a factor that needs to take into account.

The United States

In the 1990s, the United States left and right parties rarely worked together to develop the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, from which you could see how much people hate it. Still, there are different arguments and attitudes toward this issue.  Liberal representatives such as Hillary Clinton repeatedly delivered speeches of vigorously resisting human trafficking. While the conservatives such as Vital Voices and International Justice Mission are not only opposed to human trafficking, but even against sex trade (Kristof & Wu 25). Furthermore, a large number of sex trade demand has deepened the gender inequality in this free country, and many of those who are involved are well-educated married men (Shively 6). Underage prostitution is also a very serious issue in the United States. Many studies have shown that the average age of the prostitutes to entry this industry is only 12 to 16 years old (Kristof & Wu 11). There are also a series of negative consequences of prostitution such as the increasing crime rates, higher health risks, the quality of life in communities, and so on (Kristof & Wu 16). My American interviewee argued that prostitution existed in America but it was pretty far under the table in the black market – there are lot of gangs and sex trafficking and so on. He also said that probably a lot of sensitivity training and special police units are needed to deal with the sex trafficking problem.

b. Developing regions: India and Cambodia

India

Thousands of Nepalese girls were sold to the brothels in India, and the Indian boarder officer seemed to be blind about it and even made jokes about it (Kristof & Wu 23). The reason behind this terrible attitude is similar to that of slavery - the victims are not regarded as an equal human being (24). In the early 1990s, the implication of the Durbar Mahila Samanwaya committee massively promoted the use of condoms through the media and reduced the HIV infection rate of sex workers to a certain extent (28). However, there were still many guests requested sex services without condoms and the price was higher than those with condoms. So a lot of sex workers chose to take the risk and the policy had little effect. In fact, the Indian government has made a lot of efforts to protect women's rights, but there are some deviations. Such as Article 23 of Indian Constitution forbids human being trafficking, but in terms of the rules, only the brothel operators, pimps, and prostitutes are supposed to be punished, somehow there is no legal responsibilities asked from the clients (Gupta, 43). Although brothels are illegal in India, they are omnipresent. In many less developed countries and regions, the enforcement of the law is very weak. Therefore, we must pay more attention to change the status quo rather than on the law itself.

Cambodia

In Cambodia, the situation is not any better. Underage prostitutes are a bigger issue. The Svay Pak used to be one of the most severe areas of global sexual slavery, and even seven or eight years old girls became prostitutes. The United States Department of State announced the Trafficking in Persons Report and made a strong condemnation and exposure to Cambodia, and then the Cambodian police began its process of compelling brothels (Kristof & Wu 34). However, according to the information provided by my interviewee, in 2014, some massage stores still provided sexual service for the clients. The United States has set up prostitutes aid agencies in Cambodia to help them return to normal life. Some of the women were lucky, such as Momm. After years of struggles and being tormented in the brothel and even been through drug addiction, she finally got out of the industry completely and became a housewife. On the other hand, the health problems brought by prostitution are also an important social issue in Cambodia. Another rescued prostitute, Neth, fell into deep fear for a long time after she left the brothel because she suspected that she was infected with AIDS.  While those who are really affected by AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases might having a more tragic life at this moment.

II. Shortcomings of Prostitution Policies

a. Existing Policies and Prohibitive Measures

Countries in the world have different attitudes toward prostitution, but no matter where it is, the government attaches great importance to the issue. This section does not specifically enumerate the laws of various countries because there are too many and easily found. This section is focused on some current situations and tendencies.

It is worth mentioning that since the United States has started to publish the Trafficking in Persons Report annually, the foreign ministries in other countries have also paid much more attention on their results of controlling human trafficking. This measure has promoted the legislation and surprise operations on human trafficking in lots of countries. Pimps have found the bribery costs are on the rise, and the falling profits have correspondingly reduced part of the human trafficking out of the purpose of sex trade (Kristof & Wu 34).

Through sorting out the studies of other scholars, various countries' bans on prostitution mainly focus on banning brothels and human trafficking. At the same time, the United States, for example, has also established public education programs to raise public awareness and urge people to protect themselves in order to reduce the demand of buying sex. These measures have different levels of achievements, but there are still tens of thousands of women waiting to be rescued.

b. Reasons for Policy Failure

Political Divisions among Prohibitionists

The debate between the left and right parties on prostitution has been going on endlessly. Political division is the main reason for policy failure. The lefties believe that if an adult chooses to be a sex worker people should respect their choices. On the other hand, right-wing people think that prostitution itself is detrimental to the rights and benefits of women due to its dignity and moral integrity (Kristof & Wu 25). Prostitution proponents argue that the controversy takes place in an unequal society, especially in the aspect of finance. Men's purchasing of sexual services from women could be seen as their legitimate right to use the inequality of resources. While the abolitionists think prostitution is just a “paid rape” (Schulze 19).

Both sides of this debate seem to have their own reasons so it does not seem to end in a short time.  In addition, this division has created a globalized regional disparity. The legalization of prostitution is common in Europe, basically impossible in Asia, and the United States appears to be hesitating (Chon 836). In either situation, the real victims are the prostitutes who live on the bottom of society. The health risks as well as other risks are very high for them.

Difficulty of Prevention and Enforcement

The prevention of prostitution is directly linked to the massive human trafficking. Such as those Cambodian girls who have been selling to Indian brothels, as long as there is demand, there will be desperate people who are willing to do it for money. Plus, women who are sold to be prostitutes are often lied to or threatened and they have no freedom or human rights. Legitimized countries are also not completely innocent, as the legalization has created conditions for the booming sex industry, which leads to the influx of more illicit transactions.

In the area of implementation, prostitution has placed a heavy burden on the criminal justice system and public health and social service providers. A study conducted in the 1980s found that 16 cities in the United States spent an average of $ 15.3 million per year on prostitution control (adjusted as 2010 dollars). It was recently estimated that the cost of arrest for prostitution exceeded $ 10.6 million dollars (adjusted as 2007 dollars) in 2001 (Shively 17). It brings huge financial pressure, not to mention the requirements of substantial police force and the improvements of the legal system on the rescuing of women and the monitoring of prostitution. These burdens also lead to ineffective implementation of the policies.

High Frequency of Recidivism

It is a key issue to reduce the high frequency of recidivism of the prostitutes after rescuing them. Social inequalities, dependency on drugs, pimp threats, and others are responsible for the return of prostitutes to the Red Light District (Kristof & Wu 35). Thrupkaew (2012) held the same view. Based on the fact that policy makers began to ban all prostitution activities, not just to ban the child trafficking into the sex industry, she pointed out although such actions gained much support, they could not fundamentally prevent people from returning to their old jobs. On the other hand, these actions without afterwards programs might increase their burden of living instead. Following this perspective, some prostitutes have children, especially in the less developed with high fertility rates. Since it is difficult to find the father, the prostitute has to maintain a sufficient source of income to raise their kids. As a result, going back to the sex industry might be the only way for these people. At the same time, it is hard for the prostitutes’ daughters to go to school and have a normal life. They have to face unpleasant looking and ironic inquires like “when are you going to work like you mom.” Therefore, the reason for policy failure is not only the high frequency of recidivism, and also the inevitable negative impact on the next generation and the psychological and physical harm.

III. Potential Methods for Prohibition and Policy Implication

a. Supporting Related Social Programs

To find a way to effectively control prostitution, treating prostitution as a human being is a foundation. They are living people who are experiencing difficulties and suffering from despair, and cold laws and social policies cannot totally help them. Donna, for example, escaped from a mistreatment environment and started prostitution when he was 13 years old because otherwise he would not have survived. She is now 25 and claims, “I didn’t really like prostituting. But then, I had no other way out.” (Thrupkaew 2012). Many young people are struggling to escape from their present life, however, due to other factors such as family conditions, they could not afford to have a stable life. When they become homeless some of them have to join the sex industry – all they need is to survive – having a bed to sleep on and having food to eat. To help such groups of people, it is the solution to establish social programs that meet their basic survival needs, and to provide job opportunities.

b. Aggressively Prosecuting Human Trafficking

About half of the global victims of human trafficking are women and most of them have become prostitutes (Shively 5). Human trafficking should be aggressively prosecuted. The first challenge is to identify the signs of human trafficking. For example, Zurich prostitutes need authorization to work and it helps to gather the data and recognize the abnormal signs of human trafficking (Reinschmidt 17). In addition, improving the police's reputation and law enforcement is also an endeavoring direction. At present, the trust between police and prostitutes is relatively weak. Compared to pimps, many prostitutes fear the police more than seek help from them. Deady argued that since 1919 prostitution was a crime in the United States. However, by 2010, the industry is still prosperous. It can be seen that the single legislative effect is very limited and the enforcement of the law is the key (554). So the enforcement efforts should be stepped up in the fight against human trafficking and carefully scrutinized in the conviction process to save more women.

Conclusion

The necessary change is difficult and takes a long time, even if many policies have been launched and many prohibitive measures have been taken. Factors limiting the success of anti-prostitution measures included complex cultural, social, political, and economic factors among other reasons. The debate of legalizing prostitution is still in debate but it is important to try to reduce the harm.

 

Works Cited

Chon, Don Soo. “Gender Equality, Liberalism and Attitude Toward Prostitution: Variation in

Cross-National Study.” Journal of Family Violence, 21 April 2015, pp. 827-838.

Deady, Gail M. “The Girl Next Door: A Comparative Approach to Prostitution Laws and Sex

Trafficking Victim Identification Within the Prostitution Industry.” Washington and Lee journal of civil rights and social justice, Vol. 17, Issue 2, 2011, pp.  515-555.

Gupta, Vaishali. “Gender equality: rights and developments in India.” Vidhigya, Vol. 9, No.

1, 2014, pp. 38-46.

Kristof, Nicholas D, and Sheryl WuDunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity

for Women Worldwide. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Print.

Reinschmidt, Lena. Prostitution in Europe between regulation and prohibition - Comparing

legal situations and effects. Observatory for Sociopolitical Developments in Europe, May 2016.

Schulze, Erika.  Sexual exploitation and prostitution and its impact on gender equality. The

European Parliament's Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, January 2014.

Shively, Michael, et al. A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand

Reduction Efforts, Final Report. NCJRS, June 2012.

Thrupkaew, Noy. “A Misguided Moral Crusade.” The New York Times, 22 September 2012,

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/23/opinion/sunday/ending-demand-wont-stop-prostitution.html. Accessed 27 October 2017.

Williams, Gisela. “A Dutch Effort to Form a Prostitute Cooperative Is Met With Hope and

Skepticism.” The New York Times, 14 August 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/world/europe/amsterdam-netherlands-prostitute-cooperative.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FProstitution. Accessed 27 October 2017.

 

 

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