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common property to address the commons problem

2020-03-31 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- common property to address the commons problem,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是哈丁(1968)在《公地悲剧》一文中,对人类过度增殖条件下的公地悲剧给出了合理的解释,这不是一个技术和科学都能解决的问题。科学技术的本质是更有效、更高效地利用资源和能源。然而,人类的无限繁衍,使得地球上的自然资源特别是土地资源受到限制。即使人们能够解决能源的获取问题,也会出现资源浪费的新问题。更糟糕的是,没有明确的定义我们可以追求的最佳人口,人类历史上也没有一个文化群体达到了这一目标

common property to address the commons problem

The tragedy of the commons

In Hardin’s article (1968), The Tragedy of The Commons, it gives reasonable explanation for the tragedy of the commons in condition of human beings’ excessive multiplication, which is not a problem can be solved by technique and science. The essence of science and technology is to use resources and energy more effectively and efficient. However, the infinite breeding human beings makes the natural resources especially the land resources in the earth limited. And even though people can solve the problems of acquisition of energy, the new problems of waste of resources will happen. Worse, there is no definite definition of optimum population we can pursue and no cultural group in human history has achieved this goals. Fundamentally, the tragedy for the commons happens because of the conflict of benefits between individuals and public. This clash is unapparent in the ancient time since the quantity of human is so small that human activities will not bring unacceptable harm to nature and in other word, nature can digest the insignificant hurt from human behaviors. At that time, the invisible hands can handle this problems properly. In most cases, people pursuing their individual benefits will increase the social utility, which means individual’s benefit is concordant with social behalf. But, when the quantity of human beings rockets beyond the bearing capacity of nature, nature will be hurt and be cured hardly. Thus the conflict of benefits between individuals and commons should be payed attention. To solve this problem, some measures are put forward like tax. Government will charge someone using the resources instead of free. So, for the resources user, it should consider the price for consuming what resources it wants and the situation of infinite use will be put an end since the margin receipt will be zero and even minus at a time. But, it is not a perfect solution and there are many problems such as the management of tax gatherers. As an individual, the tax gather should consider its maximum benefit too, which lead to the new benefit conflict between individuals and commons.

Common property rights to solve commons problem

In this section, it is going to summarize the common property rights to solve commons problems claimed by Wade (1987). Author suggests to use cooperative method such as setting up an organization to coordinate and help to distribute the common pool resources, which has the character of exclusion. By inspecting some village in India, the findings suggests that the organized villages usually have a better performance in income-defending or income-enhancing. Thus, establishing a cooperative institution to help to manage the common resources is extremely important and principles for designing the organization play an significant role.

Firstly, the decision of establishing such an organization can be successful only when the majority of participants are conscious of this necessary of cooperative management. Though the participants under this organization should obey the rules set by authority, the establishment of this organization is voluntary. So, the support from participators decide whether it should set up this organization and influence its development.

Secondly, the corporate organization ought to be based on existing structure of authority, which can be more effective and efficient in terms of supervision. Since the corporate organization is constituted of individuals who will pursue their own benefits ignoring the common behalf without supervision, it is suggested to place it under an powerful authority. Besides, the corporate organization in the charge of existing authority can also help to carry out its rules and regulation.

Thirdly, the corporate organization should only focus on nonprivatizable benefits as a third-party coordinator. Once it is involved into privatizable benefits, the reputation and authority will be eliminated and contribute less of its original functions.

Fourthly, the corporate organization is expected to concentrate its core activity of income-defending or income-enhancing and take on less bywork.

Fifthly, developing the ability of statistic and calculation in corporate organization is also important. It has the accountability of record keeping to report to participants of its contribution of income-enhancing and developing direction.

Sixthly, the corporate organization should define the managed boundary of resources and give out the clear related stipulation to all participant. In general, the quantity of resources is smaller is better.

Last, the corporate organization cannot be too huge, which means the quantity of participants ought to be limited and it cannot be too many. Once the users in organization excessive its management capacity, the efficiency of it will be turned down.

Factors influencing the presence of CMT regimes

The existing marine resources should be competed by person and distributed to different individuals. In general, there are two ways to help to achieve this marine resource allocation. One allows individuals to access to the ocean freely and the other one is to set governance organization usually called Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) to limit the access right for all individuals. Nowadays, more and more countries and regions strengthen the management of marine resources. In this section, it is going to summarize and analyze the study findings from Cinner (2005) and discuss how to enhance the efficiency of marine resources management.

Obviously, individuals accessing into ocean is to look for their ideal marine resources and Cinner’ article has proved that the connectivity to large markets may undermine the strength of CMT. Laissez-fairefor natural resources in condition of large quantity of human being today will bring disaster, which has been mentioned above. Thus, it is suggested for the authority of marine resource administration to provide credit and generate prestige to strengthen its power. This method can be worked if that country or region has high dependence on marine resources because the findings in Cinner’s study has proved that there is a positive relationship between resource dependence and CMT. Because the region depending highly on marine resources, it will tend to be willing to pay for price to increase livelihood security.

However, there may be conflict between the users under the arrangement of CMT and related rules and regulation and mishandling this clash may lead to turn down the CMT’s prestige. It is suggested for the CMT to simplify and clear the rules to access to marine resources. More importantly, the rules and regulations are expected to refresh every once in a while to catch up the new demanding of the users.

Last but not least, some factors including population, settlement patterns and national factors play less important role in CMT establishment and it suggests the marine resources regimes should put their efforts into policy management and negotiation with relevant interest groups to reach a desirable solution of resources distribution. The invisible hands may fail when the quantity of human beings rockets today, regulation and control for the limited resources is necessary today and the relevant policy should be based on the key factors influencing the establishment of regulation.

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