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The development of hierarchical modern apprenticeships in Britain

2019-12-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The development of hierarchical modern apprenticeships in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国层级化现代学徒制的发展。英国的层级化学徒制是在传统学徒制充分发展的基础上逐渐演变而来的,英国于20114月颁布了《英国学徒制标准规范》,意味着全国范围内的层级化现代学徒制体系已经形成,即适龄年轻人接受学徒制教育。20133月修改了《英国学徒制标准规范》,将高等学徒制的范围扩大化,能够与传统高等教育相互融通。这一举措拓展了职业教育人才的上升渠道,促进了普职融通,提高了职业教育人才培养的层级,吸引了更多适龄青年参与现代学徒制教育。英国层级化现代学徒制建立之后,学徒培养规模逐渐扩大,主要集中在中级学徒制和高级学徒制。

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After a long period of development, Britain has formed a hierarchical modern apprenticeship talent training system, which provides a large number of multi-level skilled talents for the social and economic development of Britain. The hierarchical modern apprenticeship training system has the following marked characteristics: with perfect talent training framework system for protection, pay attention to play the leading role of the enterprise, the establishment of a hierarchical multiple collaboration network, comprehensive development of apprentice applied comprehensive skills, results oriented evaluation method, combining academic certificate and professional qualification certificate, etc. Draw lessons from British experience, the construction of modern apprentice system in our country can take multiple subject construction to take an active part in the architecture, improve the modern apprenticeship professional adaptability of the structure and the industrial structure, expanding the scope of the modern apprenticeship recruit students object, improve apprentice training level, building on the basis of the result oriented apprenticeships measures such as management mechanism, promote the orderly development of the modern apprenticeship.

In recent years, Britain has carried out radical reform on modern apprenticeship, established a hierarchical talent training system for modern apprenticeship, and emphasized the cultivation of high-level application-oriented talents, providing more application-oriented talents at different levels for the social and economic development of the country. The reform of the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system in the UK has achieved initial results, enhanced the professional ability of workers and promoted the rapid and healthy development of the economy. At present, there are many bottlenecks in the pilot and development of modern apprenticeship in China. In this regard, China should draw on the advanced experience of the UK's hierarchical modern apprenticeship reform, accelerate the expansion of the scope of talent training of modern apprenticeship in China, give full play to the social service function of modern apprenticeship education, and train multi-type and multi-level applied skilled talents for the economy and society.

The hierarchical chemical apprenticeship system in Britain evolved from the fully developed traditional apprenticeship system. In the early 1990s, faced with high unemployment and slowing economic development, the British government learned from the successful experience of other European countries and began to seek a way out by reforming vocational education and establishing a talent training system of modern apprenticeship. In 1991, the British government published a white paper on Education and Training for the 21st Century, aiming to provide more young people of school age with high-quality vocational Education. Modern apprenticeships began in the UK in November 1993, were piloted in 1994 and were fully implemented in most industries across the country in 1995. Since its establishment, the modern apprenticeship system in Britain has developed rapidly. The government has continuously introduced policies and provided relevant financial support, thus expanding the scale of modern apprenticeship system.

Britain's hierarchical modern Apprenticeship is established on the basis of the development of the modern Apprenticeship full, in April 2011, has issued a "British Apprenticeship standards", means that the nationwide hierarchical modern Apprenticeship system has been formed, namely, young adults accept Apprenticeship education, can be divided into Intermediate Level Apprenticeship, the Advanced Level Apprenticeship and who Apprenticeship. In March 2013, changed the British Apprenticeship standards, will who Apprenticeship from only including level 4 or 5 extended to four grades, namely, four, five, six, seven, will the scope enlargement of Higher apprenticeships, can with the traditional Higher education financing to each other. This move has expanded the channels for the promotion of vocational education talents, promoted the integration of vocational education talents, raised the level of vocational education talents training, and attracted more school-age youth to participate in modern apprenticeship education. In April 2017, the British standard specification for apprenticeships further improved the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system, lowered the requirement of basic skills for apprentices with learning difficulties, and helped disabled people and special groups better participate in modern apprenticeship education, fully demonstrating the flexibility of the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system in the UK. The policy will be one - to - one correspondence between all levels of apprenticeships and national vocational qualifications: intermediate apprenticeships correspond to secondary national vocational qualifications to prepare apprentices for career choices and entry into advanced apprenticeships; Advanced apprenticeship corresponds to the level 3 national vocational qualification, which prepares the apprentice to choose a career and to enter advanced apprenticeship; The higher apprenticeship system corresponds to four, five, six and seven levels of national vocational qualifications, of which four or five levels are equivalent to obtaining higher education diploma, six levels of apprenticeship is equivalent to completing ordinary university education to obtain a bachelor's degree, and seven levels of apprenticeship is equivalent to completing postgraduate education to obtain a master's degree. The hierarchical modern apprenticeship system in the UK is divided according to vocational fields. Currently, there are 11 vocational fields, with a total of 108 sub-fields. Different levels of apprenticeship are divided according to sub-fields. Different levels of apprenticeships in the same subfield have different requirements for the skills that apprentices need to master, and the corresponding national vocational qualifications are also different. The hierarchical modern apprenticeship in Britain has formed a complete and systematic talent training system, which clearly divides different levels of apprenticeship, helps to meet the needs of different groups of apprenticeship education, and expands the scope of modern apprenticeship training objects.

After the establishment of hierarchical modern apprenticeship in Britain, the scale of apprenticeship training gradually expanded, mainly focusing on intermediate apprenticeship and advanced apprenticeship. In terms of enrollment from 2011 to 2016, although the number of higher apprenticeships increased year by year, reaching a peak of 5.34% in 2015, the proportion was still very low. Higher apprenticeships, despite strong government support in recent years, are still less attractive to apprentices than intermediate and advanced apprenticeships, and need to be further enhanced. From the perspective of age composition, the proportion of apprentices above the age of 25 increases year by year, while the proportion under the age of 19 decreases gradually. It can be seen that working people have become the main force of modern apprenticeships in Britain. According to the subject allocation ratio data from 2011 to 2016, the top three subject areas that attract apprentices are business, government and law, health, public service and care, retail and commercial enterprises. The distribution of the number of apprentices in different fields is in line with the industrial structure of Britain, which promotes the development of British enterprises. The rapid development and achievements of the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system in Britain cannot be separated from the strong support of the government. Mrs May's government has promised to add 700,000 apprenticeships to the 2.3m created by the previous government, with a target of 3m apprenticeships by 2020. The British government hopes to promote the development of the economy by developing the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system to increase employment rate, improve the professional quality of workers, and provide more application-oriented talents to the industrial sector.

We have established a complete framework and roadmap for training talents for the modern apprenticeship system. The British government has established the framework of modern apprenticeship by law, including standards, objectives, contents and methods. First, different levels of apprenticeships have different standards for talent development. In 2011, the ministry of education and the national apprenticeship service center and other departments jointly developed the England apprenticeship training specifications, minimum standards for each level of apprenticeship training to make clear rules, put forward each level apprenticeships in math, English, information clear requirements, vocational schools, enterprises and training institutions must meet the relevant requirements. In March 2015, the UK government published a new list of apprenticeships, covering a wide range of apprenticeships, to be used by businesses and training organisations to recruit apprentices. The standards of apprenticeship training are constantly updated and improved, and are determined in legal form, binding on enterprises and training institutions, which is an important measure to ensure the quality of apprenticeship training. Secondly, the hierarchical personnel training objectives. Different levels of apprenticeship training objectives are different, the apprenticeship required to achieve the ability requirements are different, and the national vocational qualification certificates and academic certificates corresponding. For example, the higher apprenticeship system provides that level four apprentices should obtain an intermediate vocational qualification and a one-year higher education certificate, level five apprentices should obtain a higher vocational qualification and a basic university degree, level six apprentices should obtain an advanced vocational qualification and a bachelor's degree, and level seven apprentices should obtain a vocational qualification equivalent to a postgraduate level. Again, about the content of personnel training, 2013 revision of the implementing rules for the England apprenticeships standardized management for apprenticeships admissions requirements, at the level of learning tasks, start-stop time, curriculum structure, training process, certificate, etc, has made the detailed rules and standardizes the enterprise apprentice training content and training organizations. Finally, in the mode of talent training, the skills council and the national apprenticeship management center recognized industry associations and enterprises to develop the talent training scheme of frame system, enterprise organization personnel training project implementation within this framework, the national apprenticeship management center is responsible for the apprentice graduation before final inspection, complete the whole process of talent training. It can be seen that the talent training framework system of hierarchical modern apprenticeship in the UK is very perfect, with relevant laws as the guarantee. All stakeholders carry out apprenticeship training projects within the framework to ensure the quality of talent training. In order to continuously improve the adaptability of the talent training framework system of modern apprenticeship, the British government invited business experts to continuously improve the whole framework system, laying a good foundation for the development of apprenticeship.

The UK has established a framework for the development of modern apprenticeship, on which companies and related institutions plan a roadmap for talent development. The British government has extended the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system to level 6 and level 7 apprenticeships, providing more options for apprentices, whether they are continuing to study for a degree or choosing employment, with a good path up. Companies and related institutions take into account the hierarchy of modern apprenticeships when developing specific talent development roadmaps for each profession, and the specific routes are different at different levels. For example, the six and seven levels of apprenticeship belong to the higher apprenticeship system. The training orientation of apprenticeship is relatively high, and it trains high-level applied talents. The six-level apprenticeship training roadmap for broadcasting technology majors is composed of four committees: the BBC, the university of salford, the UK creative industry skills organization and Birmingham city university. The development of the talent training roadmap by professional teams is conducive to the scientific standardization of the talent training framework and roadmap, the close connection with the talent needs of industry enterprises, and the improvement of the competitiveness of apprentices. A clear framework and roadmap for talent development can attract more young people of suitable age to participate in modern apprenticeship training. Through the framework and roadmap, they can identify the future promotion channels and facilitate rational choices.

Give full play to the leading role of enterprises in modern apprenticeship training and promote the integration of industry and education. The remarkable success of modern apprenticeships in Britain cannot be separated from the emphasis on the leading role of business. Companies promote apprenticeships mainly through production-education integration programs. First of all, enterprises have the dominant right to develop the integration of production and education. In the process of developing the modern apprenticeship system, the British federal government entrusted the dominant power to enterprises in various forms. In terms of funds, the British federal government has entrusted enterprises with the right to use the funds of the integration project of modern apprenticeship system. Enterprises can choose their own partners, organize the integration project team and occupy the dominant power of project development. At the same time, the British federal government also gives enterprises the right to set the standard system of modern apprenticeship, and the enterprises set relevant standards based on their own needs and have a greater say. This changed the previous school-led phenomenon, and enabled enterprises to gain the leading power, which greatly increased the enthusiasm of enterprises to participate in the product-teaching integration program of apprenticeship. With the deep participation of enterprises, industry-teaching integration projects at all levels have mushroomed, forming the "project group" of industry-teaching integration of modern apprenticeship system. Second, the integration program is tailored to the needs. Each apprenticeship program is set up according to the needs of the business and related institutions, following the principle of customized. Enterprises shall formulate relevant training plans according to specific industry-teaching integration projects to promote the development of industry-teaching integration projects. This way can not only meet the existing needs, but also have a certain predictability. Industry and education integration programs have also been launched in many previously unexplored areas to meet the talent needs of some upcoming industries and enterprises. It is necessary to combine the development demand of the industry with the development of modern apprenticeship and give play to the role of modern apprenticeship in the development of enterprises in the service industry. Finally, the implementation and development of modern apprenticeship talent training "project group" is diversified and collectivized. Taking enterprises as the leading role, schools, training institutions, industry associations, certification organizations and other diverse subjects participate in the formation of collectivization of the implementation and development of the main body, is a strong guarantee for the "project group". For example, in airbus's six-level apprenticeship training program, the participating universities include deside college, university of the west of England, Bristol city college and glendale university. Participate in the collectivization of the main body, and provide strong financial, human, material and technical support for the development of "project group". British hierarchical modern apprenticeship give full play to the leading role in the enterprises in the talent training, arouse the enthusiasm of the enterprise, promote the fusion "program" the rise of production and education, effectively promoted the development of the modern apprenticeship, for social and economic development provides a variety of levels of applied talents and meet the demand of the development of industry enterprises.

We should build a multi-level and diversified cooperation network to promote the development of talent training system. The personnel training system of hierarchical chemistry system in Britain is inseparable from the support of multi-level and multiple cooperation network. The support from all sectors of the society promotes the development of the personnel training system. First, the British federal government, as an important support force for the hierarchical chemical apprenticeship system, adopted various measures to promote the development of the hierarchical modern apprenticeship system. The first is to expand the modern apprenticeship system to level six and seven, and make the advanced apprenticeship into a level where the modern apprenticeship system needs to focus on development. Second, the development of modern apprenticeship should be incorporated into the social and economic development strategy, and a series of laws and regulations should be formulated to regulate the development of modern apprenticeship, so as to ensure that the development of modern apprenticeship has laws to follow. Third, the use of a variety of ways and channels to promote the modern apprenticeship, vigorously promote the development of modern apprenticeship. Fourth, give full play to the leading role of enterprises in the training of modern apprenticeship talents and mobilize the enthusiasm of enterprises to participate. Second, British industry strongly supports the development of modern apprenticeships. In response to the government's call, the British industry has actively participated in the hierarchical modern apprenticeship, providing strong support from the aspects of capital, technology, manpower, material resources and training venues, and participating in the formulation of apprenticeship standards and talent training framework, providing valuable Suggestions for the improvement of the talent training system of modern apprenticeship. Thirdly, the British educational community is actively involved in the training process of modern apprenticeship. In addition to vocational colleges and universities, a number of voluntary associations and organizations actively participate in apprenticeship programs and play an important role. Finally, the active participation of all sectors of the society promotes the development of hierarchical modern apprenticeship. The news media, network platforms and other social forces have realized the promoting effect of hierarchical modern apprenticeship on the rapid development of British economy. Therefore, they constantly publicize the hierarchical modern apprenticeship to attract more industry enterprises and school-age youth to participate in the apprenticeship, gradually expanding the scale and influence of modern apprenticeship. The UK has built a network of diverse, multi-tiered collaborations that have brought all sectors of society together to develop a modern, hierarchical apprenticeship system.

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