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Foreign emergency management system

2019-12-10 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Foreign emergency management system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国外的应急管理体制。社会的发展与时代的进步,促使各个国家逐渐完善应急体制,以求可以更好地处理各类突发事件,将其危害降到最低。美国政府所建立的应急管理体制主要是立足于联邦政府,然后各大州与地方协助,可以将其统称为三级机制。日本的应急管理体制主要表现为两种形式:第一种是灾情网络体系,第二种是志愿行动。而法国应急管理体制的建立具有一定的针对性,通常会将一个安全事故或者是灾害事故的应急工作划分前、中、后三个阶段,并且应用分类管理方法进行处理。

The development of society and the progress of The Times have prompted countries to gradually improve their emergency response systems in order to better deal with all kinds of emergencies and minimize their harm. Comparatively speaking, the construction time of China's emergency management system is relatively short.

Based on the current situation of the main body of world development, the types and frequency of various types of unexpected events are increasing, which has not only affected the local countries but also the international community. Especially after the "9.11" events in the United States, governments began to focus on the construction of emergency management system in order to better deal with disasters. Therefore, we can study foreign emergency management system, learn from advanced experience, improve our system.

The emergency management system established by the U.S. government is mainly based on the federal government, and then various states and local assistance, which can be collectively referred to as the three-level mechanism. The top agency in the administration is the department of homeland security, into which FEMA was subdivided in 2003.

In the tertiary reaction mechanism, although various levels interact with each other, but also are independent of each other, both in the states and local establishing separate dispatch center, after the emergency accidents, dispatching center will directly according to the content, distribution of emergency work, equipment, etc, to ensure all emergency services can run independently, under the overall planning of dispatching center, can together again. In this way, the whole emergency management work can be more efficient.

During the construction of the emergency system in the United States, relevant legal documents have been formulated to ensure the normal operation of emergency work. In the past, the emergency management of the United States will work in accordance with the federal response plan and assist the emergency assistance act to ensure the quality of emergency treatment. Among them, "response plan" is a legal document jointly signed and formed by various government departments. The specific contents include division of labor, responsibility, coordination and overall planning of various departments. After the September 11 incident, the us government successively issued the military force authorization act and the air transport act, which improved the legal support system of the emergency management system.

Japan's emergency management system is mainly manifested in two forms: the first is the disaster network system, the second is voluntary action. Under normal circumstances, the collection of disaster information is more important, because it is an important part of understanding the extent of the disaster and its changes. Through the analysis of the information, a more accurate disaster relief plan can be formulated. The reason why the disaster network system in Japan should be explained separately is that the country can basically achieve the full coverage of the disaster, with not only a meteorological intelligence system, but also a rational intelligence system and a river intelligence system. And to ensure that the situation can be quickly passed, the Japanese government established a large disaster prevention of wireless networks, wireless networks and connect the fire authority, prefectures, cities at the same time street in the village of disaster prevention agencies also is divided into the central wireless networks, which regional problems, high-level emergency unit can immediately know, greatly improve the efficiency of emergency coordination.

Due to the special geographical environment and frequent earthquakes in Japan, not only the government but also the public will play an important role in emergency management. Every time a disaster strikes, local communities show a high level of volunteerism. For example, in the devastating natural disaster in 2011, after the earthquake, nearly 30,000 non-governmental organizations formed in Japan to carry out disaster relief and relief activities in an orderly manner, and spontaneously set up networks to coordinate the distribution of materials efficiently. After a long period of development, Japan has formed a special disaster relief civil institutions, in the event of disaster can play an important role.

The establishment of the emergency management system in France has certain pertinence, usually dividing the emergency work of a safety accident or disaster accident into the first, middle and last three stages, and applying the classification management method to deal with it. If the emergency situation is not urgent, the various parts of emergency management will operate on their own. If there is an emergency, each department will be coordinated by the home office. In case of a serious accident, the central government will establish a temporary inter-ministerial joint meeting based on the disaster situation, and then plan the emergency work. The ministry of interior will analyze the existing resources of each institution and finally integrate them.

From the perspective of management responsibility, the French government emphasizes "territorial management". Although both the central and local governments have the functions of emergency management, in terms of the responsibility of responding to emergencies, France emphasizes the principle that emergency management is mainly territorial and graded response. The mayor and the national commissioner to the province are responsible for the public security of the areas under their jurisdiction. They first respond to and deal with emergencies within their jurisdiction, and then request the support of national resources if they cannot cope within their capacity, thus ensuring the stable operation of the emergency management system.

To sum up, in the process of studying foreign emergency management systems, both the three-level response mechanism of the United States and the disaster communication network of Japan are advanced experiences that can be learned from and learned from, and China must face up to them in order to learn from each other. Although there are still some problems in emergency law and information technology application, the construction of emergency management system will be gradually comprehensive as long as it is based on the perspective of "serving the people".

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