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Japan's pension model

2019-12-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Japan's pension model,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了日本的养老模式。日本的养老模式以制度为主线、全民皆保险皆年金、针对性建立保障制度、为老人提供专业化服务为原则;以尊重老人个体独立性、身心并护、帮助老人自立自信为理念;在这样的理念和原则的基础上,构成了日本“居家—社会型”养老模式的基本内容,就是以养老保险、医疗保险、介护保险等为保障,让老人在需要养老服务时没有过重经济负担地、在熟悉的地域圈自主选择养老服务项目。

Japan's pension model,日本养老模式,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

After the World War II, Japan began to explore the endowment mode. After several decades, it finally formed the "home-society" endowment mode based on the system with endowment insurance, medical insurance and intermediary insurance as the core, and became the most suitable country in the world. On the basis of a correct understanding of the background of Japan's pension model and a comprehensive understanding of its principles, concepts and contents, it is of great significance to deal with China's pension problems by referring to its mature experience.

Our attitude towards the issue of providing for the aged not only shows our gratitude to the predecessors who have worked all their lives for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, but also makes the generation devoted to the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics full of hope for the future. Learning from the successful experience of Japan will have important inspiration to solve the pension problem in China, and we should not only understand the mature Japanese pension model, but also take into account its unique formation conditions and development process.

Compared with European and American countries, Japan's exploration of pension mode is not the earliest, but its achievements are well known, indicating that its exploration is relatively successful. Among the industrialized countries, Japan is the latest to enter into the aging population, and the differences in historical background make the process of exploring the mode of providing for the aged special, while the World War II is an important node in the history of Japan.

Before the World War II, Japan's medical insurance and pension insurance had a certain basis, but the war had a huge negative impact on Japan's social security work. First of all, Japan began to explore medical insurance in the middle and later period of Meiji restoration, and promulgated the health insurance act in 1922, which came into effect five years later and officially established the social medical insurance system. But health insurance coverage was limited to employees and did not cover private companies with fewer than 10 employees. Since then, Japan has expanded the coverage of health insurance to cover more employees, requiring private companies with more than five employees to join health insurance, and to cover people other than employees, enriching the insurance classification. In 1938, for example, Japan enacted the national health insurance act, which covered farmers and self-employed people who joined voluntarily. For example, in 1939, Japan specifically established the seafarers insurance system for a more comprehensive guarantee. But as the World War II devastated the economy, the number of employees fell so much that health insurance coverage plummeted and faced serious financial problems. Secondly, during the Meiji period, Japan implemented the system of granting benefits to ex-servicemen and officials and their families, providing them with a comfortable living guarantee, which to some extent laid the initial foundation of the endowment insurance system. The employee insurance system in the crew insurance system was renamed as the welfare annuity in the welfare annuity act promulgated in 1944, which means pension in Japanese. The destruction of the economy during the war made pension insurance unsustainable.

In postwar Japan, political and economic development has been unprecedented, and cultural concepts are also rich in distinctive characteristics. Therefore, on the basis of the steady improvement of the political and economic situation, Japan has made many explorations on the specific system and policy of social security and made considerable achievements.

After the World War II, the United States changed its original plan to support the kuomintang and weaken Japan after the victory of the Chinese revolution frustrated the plan. Japan's pre-war industrial base also provided strong support for its subsequent economic recovery. In addition, during the Korean war, the United States purchased large quantities of military materials in Japan, which prompted the western countries to expand their military more aggressively, becoming the turning point of its economic recovery. And America's security policy has allowed Japan to pour money into its economy.

After the World War II, Japan carried out political democratization reform, which was widely supported by the Japanese people and political parties, providing a relatively stable political environment for the economic, cultural and social development of the country, and also conducive to the citizens to express their own appeals. While Japan's health-care deficit needs to be addressed, the wider population is showing an urgent need for health insurance. Since private enterprises with less than five employees are not included in the compulsory insurance coverage, and small enterprises are not competitive enough, with low profits and low wages, employees and their families need to bear a heavier burden of medical care, the people have expressed their desire to obtain medical care.

Man in time of war, the "universal" policy has produced profound influence to the national, the principle of "universalism" also reflected on the system establishment, such as Japan in 1942 launched the "national insurance movement", officially set up in 1961 "national insurance is all annuity" system, which established a pension insurance system and medical insurance system, the popularity of the two systems to provide more effective social security is of great significance.

The Japanese pension model takes the system as the main line, universal insurance and annuity, the establishment of targeted security system, and the provision of professional services for the elderly as the principle. To respect the independence of the elderly, physical and mental protection, help the elderly self-reliance and self-confidence for the concept; On the basis of such concepts and principles, it constitutes the basic content of Japan's "home-society" mode of old-age care, which is guaranteed by old-age insurance, medical insurance and intermediary insurance, so that the elderly can choose old-age care services independently in familiar geographical areas without excessive economic burden when they need them.

After 1961, Japan realized universal insurance and annuity, providing social security services for all citizens, and establishing a targeted security system for specific groups, such as medical insurance for the elderly and intermediary insurance. The elderly are a special group with a high incidence of various diseases, and with the increasing trend of aging, the medical burden of the elderly has become a problem of great concern. Starting from 1973, Japan decided to provide free medical benefits for the aged over 70, which not only solved the problem of high medical costs for the elderly, but also eased the pressure of medical insurance. In 1982, due to the advent of aging, the medical expenses of the elderly have imposed an increasingly heavy burden on the society. Japan promulgated the health care law for the elderly, which not only separated the medical care and nursing for the elderly from the whole medical insurance system, but also separated the medical care and nursing for the elderly from each other. And instead of providing free health care for the elderly, there is a subsidy for sick people over the age of 70 or 65, who pay only 10 percent of their medical expenses, a share of the state's burden and subsidies to insurance institutions that give medicare to the elderly a welfare character. However, this is also one of the reasons why we set up the mesenchyme insurance system separately. The combination of aging and family size reduction means that the increasingly weakened home care system does not have enough energy to cope with the increasing demand for long-term care. While facing the pressure of economic downturn, the expenditure on social welfare for the elderly is increasing, while the demand for long-term care for the elderly has not been met. On the contrary, the allocation of medical resources is unbalanced due to the occupation of free medical resources. Therefore, after the health care law for the elderly in 1982, the mediation insurance law was promulgated in 1997 and was implemented in 2000. The accreditation system and standards of the mediation were gradually developed, and professional mediation service personnel were trained. This system specially designed for the elderly, as well as professional services, effectively alleviates the pressure of caring for the elderly, and maintains the efficient operation. The above is an important embodiment of the principle of the Japanese pension model. In Japan, the provision of elderly care services for the elderly is not based on age, but by the elderly self-application. Under the condition of good health, the elderly will choose self-reliance and re-employment. On the one hand, it saves social resources and relieves the pressure of providing for the aged. On the other hand, it also makes the old people feel that they still play the social value, and fully respects the independence of the old people. For the elderly in need of social support, they can apply to the most basic administrative units to obtain personalized nursing services selected according to their own conditions. The service locations are mostly familiar to the elderly, which not only take care of the elderly's body, but also take care of their psychological feelings, which is conducive to helping the elderly to be self-reliant and confident. This is the important embodiment of the concept of the Japanese pension model.

As the basic content of Japan's pension model, pension insurance, medical insurance and intermediary insurance benefit all Japanese citizens and play an irreplaceable role.

Current is divided into three broad categories of medical insurance, in chronological order first divided into professional field of insurance, including health insurance for enterprise employees, for the crew's crew insurance, for civil servants fraternal combination, the second is the regional division, by the basic administrative units in charge of the regional insurance, namely the national health insurance, and aimed at the ripe old age of neuropsychology, medicare.

The current endowment insurance system includes national pension, welfare pension, with mandatory. Among them is the mutual-aid pension, which was incorporated into its system in 2012 and is scheduled to be harmonised by 2027. The national pension is set for all residents living in Japan and must be added to the national pension if they are between the ages of 20 and 60. After reaching the age of 65 and meeting a certain age of contribution, you can receive a pension. Welfare pension and mutual aid pension are respectively for enterprise staff and administrative staff, the coverage of these two and national pension overlap, join these two pension at the same time, will automatically join the national pension. In addition, there are commercial insurance and enterprise annuity that can be joined voluntarily. Enterprises that join enterprise annuity can enjoy tax incentives to encourage them.

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