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Corruption in Indonesia's new order

2019-11-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Corruption in Indonesia's new order,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了印尼新秩序时期的腐败问题。印尼自从渡过1997年亚洲金融危机这一难关后,经济发展势头一直良好,但腐败问题并没有随着经济发展而减轻。虽然各届政府都曾出台过各种政策来遏制腐败,但至今腐败问题仍然未得到彻底解决。严重的腐败问题导致了苏哈托政府的垮台,使得印尼长期陷入金融危机的泥淖中难以脱身。

Indonesia is one of the founding countries of the association of southeast Asian nations, the largest economy in southeast Asia, and an important strategic partner of China. Indonesia has been a colony of the Netherlands and Japan for quite a long time, and the domestic situation is quite complicated. In particular, "collusion of cliques, corruption and bribery, money politics" has become a key word in Indonesia's social and political life. In terms of corruption, Indonesia can be compared with the most underdeveloped African countries in the world, which seems quite out of line with its economic development.

Indonesia's economy has been growing well since it emerged from the 1997 Asian financial crisis, but corruption has not abated. Indonesia is the most corrupt of the 16 major investment destinations in the asia-pacific region surveyed, according to a survey by hong kong-based political and economic risk consulting firm. Out of 10, Indonesia scored 9.0, ranking first. Remarkably, Indonesia has been ranked first since 1995. Since suharto's ouster, successive governments have introduced policies to curb corruption, but corruption remains a cancer in Indonesia's social development. From the perspective of the development history and characteristics of Indonesian society, to understand this problem, the money politics in the new suharto order cannot be ignored.

Indonesia had long been under colonial rule until 1945, when it struggled to gain independence and international recognition. The first leader, sukarno, took office in 1945 and was forced out in 1965. The period of sukarno's leadership in Indonesia can be divided into two phases, that is, the period of parliamentary democracy and the period of led democracy. The period of parliamentary democracy is the initial period of independence, when there are still many colonial legacies in Indonesia. On the one hand, Dutch capital is ubiquitous in Indonesia, which to some extent inhibits the development of Indonesia's national economy. On the other hand, in order to ensure Indonesia's independence as soon as possible, national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and recover west irian, the ruling class led by sukarno made economic sacrifices in the round-table conference and assumed the 4.3 billion Dutch guilders debt of the Dutch east India government. In this special case, the government is eager to develop the domestic economy, restrict foreign investment, and encourage and support domestic enterprises. However, in addition to maintaining the same attitude towards political unity and the implementation of indonesification in economy, all the forces have different views on other issues, the cabinet is in turmoil, the military forces are gradually rising, and there are still power struggles inside, so the policy cannot be sustained for a long time, and the economy of Indonesia has not been well developed.

In 1957, the country's political system changed from parliamentary democracy to a leading democracy. Changes in the political system have led to policy changes in economic management. The central bank implements comprehensive regulation and supports soes, sets up "political priority projects", and gives them a lot of preferential policies and fiscal subsidies. However, state-owned enterprises are inefficient, fail to use national policies to improve their competitiveness and production efficiency, and are seriously corrupt, which not only fail to contribute to economic development, but also aggravate the fiscal burden of the government. In general, under sukarno's administration, Indonesia basically achieved the two major goals of gaining recognition of independent statehood and getting rid of the control of Dutch capital on the economy. In this special period, politics took precedence over economy, and economic interests were sacrificed to a large extent in order to achieve political goals. However, this was a time of political instability and internal strife, which made it difficult for economic policies to be scientific, efficient and stable, and the country's overall economic situation was not good.

In 1965, the "September 30 movement" broke out in Indonesia. Suharto, a former soldier, forced sukarno to transfer power to himself. However, since Indonesia had a relatively complete political party system at that time, the military regime still needed some legitimacy to realize its long-term control of the country. So suharto began forming "professional groups" to prepare for his own election. In the 1971 general election, golkar won 62.8% of the vote and controlled 327 of the 460 seats. People's consultative conference in 1973 through the "dual function" soldier, the army is not only a military power, but also a social forces, the same year by suharto "simplify the party makes the other party" increasing disputes, a professional group for six consecutive election victory, the military role of the trinity: became an independent political force, control and master production, participate in country management. Suharto did not ignore the importance of economic construction. He set out to form a professional technocrat to carry out economic planning, stop the nationalization of foreign capital, and try to develop the economy and adjust the industrial structure. By this time Indonesia had become effectively a military-controlled technocracy.

This period of political stability was accompanied by the problem of corruption brought about by excessive concentration of power. On the one hand, military professional groups not only hold the power of the state and control the policy output, but also directly participate in the establishment and operation of enterprises. It is a tradition for the military to participate in economic activities in Indonesia. As early as during the war of independence, the military had to raise its own expenses to maintain the war, so it began to conduct some profits-making but dishonorable transactions, such as opium trade. It can be said that there is a certain tradition for the military to engage in business. In 1957, when the Indonesian government implemented the "war emergency" and the status of the military began to rise, they began to take advantage of political privileges to intervene in economic and administrative affairs, such as taxation, issuance of enterprise certificates and formulation of preferential policies, so as to seek economic benefits. In 1958, Indonesia launched a nationalization campaign of Dutch enterprises. The operation and management of this campaign were mostly carried out by military officers, which led to a large number of state-owned enterprises directly into the hands of military groups.

On the other hand, suharto kept the power of the state firmly in his own hands through three means: first, he fully grasped the power of the army through reform, reorganization of the army, removal of dissenters, promotion of his cronies to important positions, and regular change of leadership positions. Second, the simple principle of merging smaller parties into two big ones made the parties too feuding to pose a threat to suharto's professional group. Third, we should reform and improve the local administrative system, build local development planning bureaus and urban planning bureaus, control local areas and strengthen the centralization of power. As a result, state power was arguably ultimately vested in suharto, and in this case he and his family embarked on a wild and corrupt campaign to plunder society's resources. With the exception of suharto, who as President was not directly involved in business, his relatives relied on his power to run businesses. A distant relative of suharto's wife, sugandani guidosarzono, thanked suharto for his protection during the political campaign by donating money to her and prospered under his tutor.his business empire expanded rapidly and he became President of the Indonesian chamber of commerce and industry. Suharto's three sons and one daughter each run businesses in a wide range of sectors, including real estate, animal husbandry, forestry, aviation and banking. In addition, suharto's children have gone abroad, setting up businesses abroad that have monopolized the import and export of steel, plastics and other goods. Transparency international ranked suharto as the world's most corrupt head of state in the 20th century, with $15 billion to $35 billion of public money embezzled by his family.

The madness of suharto and his family has long provoked discontent, but thanks to the army's tight grip on power and the silencing of opposition, it is unlikely to last. When the Asian financial crisis broke out in 1997, Indonesia's economy was already full of hidden dangers. Financial markets continued to wobble, currencies plunged and unemployment rose to 13.5 million. What's more, disaster never comes singly. At the same time, a severe drought occurred in Indonesia, which led to large-scale grain production reduction, food supply difficulties, rising fuel prices and soaring prices in various regions. In February 1998, students launched large-scale demonstrations and demonstrations. In may, the situation became even more serious. "may storm" occurred in Jakarta, bandung, yogyakarta and other big cities. On May 18, suharto was forced to resign.

When the financial crisis first took hold, Indonesia responded by fully floating its currency. The move intensified fears at home and led to a rapid outflow of foreign capital. Therefore, the central bank began to withdraw money and introduced "liquidity assistance policy" to provide liquidity support. However, as Indonesia has been plagued by corruption for a long time, weak bank supervision and corporate governance, some people took advantage of the opportunity to seek personal gains, and the policy did not achieve the effect of containing the crisis. In October 1997, the government of Indonesia invited the imf to help overcome the crisis, hoping to cope with the crisis with the help of the imf. After analyzing the situation in Indonesia, the international monetary fund proposed three requirements for measures, including: Further tightening fiscal and financial policies to achieve the target of the national balance of payments budget surplus of 1.3%, and setting the upper limit of the base currency; Rectify the banking industry: close down "sick" Banks; Implement a series of measures to stabilize the economic situation in the real economy. But the plan to save Indonesia failed, mainly because of the government's credibility problems caused by chronic corruption. In the closure of the bank, the international monetary fund are 34 bank list after review, but the government only agree with closing 16, and not the public the original list, Banks and politicians corruption talk at this moment, the public and investors, including the international monetary fund have lost hope for Indonesia, stem the crisis of the process is slow.

The orgy of wealth amassed by the military junta and the suharto family during the suharto years has led to a tradition of corruption that every government must confront. When he became President after suharto's ouster, habibi set up an anti-corruption commission to clean up corruption in the suharto family, but he was not trusted because of his close ties to suharto. So instead of tackling corruption in Indonesia, Mr Habibi lost an election and stepped down. After habibi wahid government also has not made great achievements, wahid leadership in congress for the construction of power, policy limitation, as for the cases in the treatment of the suharto's younger son, tommy and suharto's corruption case, don't have enough courage and wisdom come from the bottom of the sewers, eventually to former President suharto corruption in this way, let the national largest publicly corrupt, also let more rampant corruption activities. Megawati sukarnoputri and yudhoyono, both of whom took office after wahid, have made efforts to fight corruption, but they have achieved little, and they cannot win the support and trust of the public because they cannot solve the corruption problem well, so they cannot win re-election in the following elections.

Corruption is a complicated system engineering, until today, Indonesia is still a high degree of corruption in countries are incredible, suharto period serious corruption brought the Indonesian society deep scar, that scar is not in the short term can be healed, it needs to develop and implement a comprehensive, thorough and lasting policy, the current anti-corruption work for Indonesia is still a long game.


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