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Global value chain

2019-11-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Global value chain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了全球价值链。全球价值链是各国学者在全球化研究中不断吸收价值链、价值增加链、全球商品链等有益成果的基础上逐步补充完善而形成和提出的。为提升整个价值链的竞争优势,针对价值链中各环节之间关系的日益复杂,提出了全球价值链治理的概念,就是价值链中权利拥有者或某些机制协调和组织各环节的非政府、非正式、非市场化的价值创造活动,是全球化背景下对市场机制协调作用的弥补,以保证不同经济活动和环节间的协调运转。

Global value chain,全球价值链,essay代写,北美作业代写,作业代写

The global value chain division of labor model has greatly promoted the in-depth development of economic integration, opened up new opportunities for countries around the world, especially developing countries, to promote economic growth, enhance production competitiveness and create jobs. It has also reshaped a new international economic and trade order and a new world economic pattern.

Since the 1980 s, the increasingly deepening of economic globalization, the rapid development of information technology and Internet, vigorously promote a new round of industrial revolution broke the products at each step of production to focus on an enterprise or a traditional way to somewhere, appeared to spread, the characteristics of debris into global value chain division of labor pattern, have a big impact on global economic and trade pattern.

Global value chain is formed and put forward by scholars of various countries on the basis of continuous absorption of beneficial achievements in globalization studies such as value chain, value-increasing chain and global commodity chain.

Is the concept of value chain in 1985 by Harvard University professor Porter Porter proposed first, to define each connected with each other to create value for enterprise internal chain link, the analysis of the behavior of enterprises and competitive advantage, and points out that the competition between enterprises is the competition of the value chain, and put forward the general enterprise value chain structure and the basic structure of the model. At the same time, Kogut, an American scholar, published an article proposing the concept of value increase chain, which was used to analyze the strategic competitive advantages of a country, and highlighted the vertical separation of value chain and the spatial reconfiguration in countries and regions around the world.

Gereffi et al., professor of duke university, applied the value chain analysis to the research on the cooperative relationship between global enterprises and put forward the global commodity chain. Due to the limitations of the term commodity, many scholars begin to use the concept of global value chain in the study of economic globalization. In September 2000, at the international symposium on belagil, Italy, the global value chain research team was established in order to better study economic phenomena such as division of labor and industrial transfer under the condition of globalization. In 2001, griffey and other scholars launched a special research journal to discuss governance, evolution and upgrading, and establish the basic framework of global value chain.

The United Nations industrial development organization pointed out that the global value chain refers to the connection for the realization of the value of the goods or services production, sales, recycling, processing, such as process of global across the enterprise network organization, ranging from collection and transportation of raw materials, semi-finished products of production and distribution, and consumption and recycling process, including all participants, production and sales activities such as organization and create value and the distribution of the profits.

In order to promote the competitive advantage of the entire value chain, aiming at each link in the value chain of the relationship between increasingly complex, gta puts forward the concept of governance of global value chain, is the right owner or some mechanism in a value chain coordination and organization of non-governmental, informal, non-market value creation activities, is under the background of globalization make up for the role of market mechanisms to coordinate, to ensure the coordination of economic activities and the links between different operation.

A number of scholars conducted in-depth studies on GVC governance models and put forward their own views. On this basis, according to the complexity of market transactions, the standardization of transactions, the competitiveness of suppliers and other factors, griffey et al. divided the governance models into five types, namely market type, module type, relational type, leadership type and hierarchical type. Market type in the value chain at the lowest level of coordination ability of actors, the core of operation is the price mechanism; Hierarchy is at the highest level, the core of the operation is management control; The modules, relationships and leads between them are all classified as network models, which belong to the further refinement of this model.

Reasonable governance model can control the cost of the value chain and enhance the competitiveness. Griffiths and other scholars introduced a variety of economic methods to study the characteristics of each model, and pointed out that the five models are in constant change. This study covers most representative GVC types that have emerged so far. Although there are many shortcomings, such as the limitation of corporate governance and the neglect of national governance, it is one of the more rigorous GVC governance paradigms.

As for the research on the dynamic mechanism of global value chain, the academic community all agrees with the binary driven model of producer-driven and buyer-driven value chain proposed by griffey et al under the framework of global commodity chain.

Producers drive refers to master the core technology of the multinational company direct investment in the developed countries to promote market demand formed by the producers to the global supply chain vertical division of labor system, including enterprise resources of global mergers and acquisitions, global relocation, etc., in which large multinational manufacturers play a leading role, and to reap the profits. Buyers drive is to point to by a strong brand advantage or controlled by the large purchase company of the sales channel, through the global procurement, outsourcing and tiepai processing methods such as organized system of transnational circulation of commodities, is build by non-market external regulation of the global production and marketing system, highlights the role of the buyers in the global production system in the world.

The division of binary drive mode is not absolute. Based on the fact that the dichotomy does not coincide with the actual situation, some studies have put forward the view of hybrid mode bounded between the two, and supplemented and improved the binary drive mode. The driving force of value chain is different, its core competence is different, and the participating strategy is different. Through the analysis of the dynamic mechanism, it is helpful to better study the operation mechanism and governance structure of global value chain.

Upgrading means that enterprises enter into activities with higher added value through embedding value chain to obtain technological progress and market competitiveness so as to obtain better benefits.

As for the industrial upgrading of global value chain, scholars from the university of Sussex put forward the following four modes: technological process upgrading refers to improving competitiveness through the upgrading of production system or technology; Product upgrade means to increase the added value by introducing new products or reforming existing products. Function upgrade means to improve the overall advantage through the reorganization of value-added links; Chain upgrade refers to the shift from one product domain to another higher end domain. Scholars believe that these four stages can be realized step by step, but also emphasize that the upgrade trajectory may not completely follow this rule. Some scholars put forward the upgrading sequence from product assembly, OEM production, design, production and processing to independent brand manufacturing from the perspective of trade mode. With incremental upgrades, manufacturers in developing countries can produce better products and create and retain more value.

Different governance models have different effects on industrial upgrading. Griffey proposes that by entering industries in hierarchical global value chains, producers in developing countries can upgrade their functions through "dry learning" and "organizational succession". Under the hierarchical model, the controlled and controlled relationship between enterprises in developed and developing countries has become a normal state, and the analysis of strengthening such industrial upgrading can be used for reference by developing countries.

International trading system from the traditional value chain to the domestic increasingly complex global value chain development, all countries in the world economy, especially in the economic and trade relations between the countries of the same value chain by past competition exclusion into current cooperation and competition coexist, become a chain is closely related to the benefits on the whole, interdependence is not a zero-sum game, but to win more pattern, or it will affect the entire value chain operation, and to spread its own interests.

Under the global value chain division of labor system, the production process is divided into different countries and regions, and the trade of intermediate goods becomes an important basis for the continuous extension of global value chain, which plays a decisive role in promoting the growth of global trade. The deepening of global value chain trade mode poses challenges to the traditional international trade and investment policies that focus on the final products. Perfect and perfect rule system is the prerequisite for the smooth development of international investment and trade and the sustainable development of global value chain.

With the rapid development of globalization, the dependence of the global economy on trade growth increased from 17.5 percent in the 1960s to 5l.9 percent in 2017, becoming an important driving force for global economic growth. Low in view of the current global trade growth and boost to world economic development in practice, countries should comply with the global value chain division of labor under the new situation of rapid development of the policy rules of the corresponding system and deepening of the global value chain division of labor cooperation, optimize the allocation efficiency of capital and technology, improve the level of economy's productivity, promote the domestic and international policy coordination fusion, eliminate trade barriers, realize common development, the world economic growth plays an important role in promoting prosperity.

With the rapid development of science and technology and the continuous development of international trade, multinational enterprises in developed countries will gradually focus on product research and development design, marketing and after-sales technology intensive production links, processes and services and other high value-added activities at both ends of the smile curve. At the same time, through the global procurement ways of optimizing the allocation of resources on a global scale, choose cooperative enterprises to build up the value chain, the low value-added processing, assembly and other production and service part, realize the complementary resources, access to the division of labor efficiency and to maximize its own interests, and more and more convenient communication and transportation make globalization division of transaction cost greatly reduced, multinational companies to become leader of the global value chain and the biggest beneficiaries.

Multinational companies have advanced patents, advanced technology and management, abundant capital and other advantages, control the core strategic link, become the value chain controller. Developing countries has its own advantages such as low material and labor advantages of low-level elements to undertake the transfer of production in developed countries, and on the path of development of low-end labor-intensive, get into the global value chain, are taking such as environmental pollution and a series of negative effect of globalization, and has been locked for a long time in low value-added processing, into a development trap risk.

The global value chain dominated by multinational companies from developed countries concealed the control and exploitation of developing countries and captured a large amount of trade added value. For example, scholars from Syracuse university in the United States pointed out that China made only $8.46 for each iPhone7 assembled in China. Once the so-called trade deficit occurs, developed countries tend to ignore the cause and nature of the trade deficit, blindly pressure each other's currency appreciation, anti-dumping duties on products and other ways to aggravate the income gap.

The further development of the global value chain, for developing countries, especially countries haven't complete product production capacity with the construction of the global production system, by means of embedding a product one or several links in the process of production, integrated into the global value chain, by participating in global division of labor by mainly engaged in the low efficiency of the first industrial production activities into a production and export of industrial products, to promote the development of the economy, improve people's living standard provides a new opportunity.

According to the theory of global value chain, the production under the background of globalization, developing countries should make full use of the opportunities brought by globalization, mining itself has the advantage of integration of resources, through the bag into the division of labor system, to join the global value chain, at the same time also can get all sorts of new knowledge, equipment and technology and management spillover effects, through the accumulation of dry middle school gradually in the production and management experience, improve the level of technology innovation, cultivate competitive advantage, and constantly climbing along the value chain at both ends and achieve industry from labor-intensive factories knowledge-intensive economy, sweat to capital headquarters economy, economic transformation and upgrading of wisdom.

At the same time, developing countries are also faced with the global value chain entry barriers in terms of backward domestic hardware and software infrastructure, trade financing restrictions and other aspects. From the perspective of global value chain, it is difficult for developing countries to truly realize industrial upgrading without technological innovation to form their core competitiveness after being embedded in global value chain. There is cooperation in global value chain, but also fierce competition. The core of a country's competitiveness lies in technological innovation and industrial innovation. Developing countries need to further strengthen the strategy of innovation-driven development, promote the integration of industries, universities and research institutes, raise the level of science and technology, and build competitive advantages.

As a kind of new way of production organization, since the proposed global value chain theory, has formed a relatively complete system of the combination of theory and practice of science, between countries has formed a "sometimes-complex mix-and-match, I have you" pattern of interests, for the economic development of developing countries open new avenues of research, more to build new international economic order provides a new train of thought, has the very good guidance for the world economy development.

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