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Modern apprenticeships in China and the west

2019-11-08 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Modern apprenticeships in China and the west,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中西方现代学徒制。学徒制由来已久,中西方学徒制经历了从以往学徒制到现代学徒制的发展历程。中西方现代学徒制都是在特定时代背景下产生的,有着共同特点,又有着差异性。虽然中西方现代学徒制的产生时间不同,但都是以往学徒制发展到现代阶段的表现形式,都是社会生产力发展到一定阶段、技能人才无法满足社会生产发展需要的产物,也都是职业教育制度遭遇瓶颈、不得不寻求突破的解决途径。中西方现代学徒制都摒弃了以往学徒制的缺点,实现了传统学徒制与现代职业教育的有机结合,旨在培养学生,满足社会、学校、企业、学生各方的需求。

The apprenticeship system has a long history. The apprenticeship system in China and the west has experienced the development process from the previous apprenticeship system to the modern apprenticeship system. The modern apprenticeship system in China and western countries is produced under the background of specific times. The implementation of modern apprenticeship in China can draw lessons from some experience of modern apprenticeship in the west.

In the west, apprenticeship has emerged in the primitive society and is obviously private. In fact, it is based on the relationship between father and son, and relies on word of mouth transmission, demonstration and imitation to complete the teaching of skills. Since there is no complete system, some scholars call it "pre-apprenticeship". This form of pre-apprenticeship education predates any form of schooling.

In the late middle ages, with the development of urban handicraft industry, family workshop production became the main mode of handicraft production, with the emergence of social division of labor among merchants, craftsmen or artisans, and the guild and guild system came into being. The emergence of the guild, a closed organization with feudal privileges, promoted the transformation of apprenticeship from the former institutional form to the institutional form. During this period, the guild clearly stipulated the mentoring relationship and other relevant details in the form of contract. The mentoring relationship was still relatively close on the whole, but it was no longer purely a parent-child relationship, and it tended to transform into an employment relationship.

From 16th century to 18th century, Europe transformed from feudal society to capitalist society, and the mode of production gradually changed from family workshop to manual workshop. The emergence of economic, political and social conflicts and the corruption of the guild system led to the disintegration of the traditional guild apprenticeship. Since the mid-16th century, the guild gradually lost its control over apprenticeships. The state intervened in apprenticeships through legislation and gained control over apprenticeships. The system of apprenticeship has been strengthened, and the mentoring relationship has been completely transformed into an employment relationship.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, two industrial revolutions broke out in western society, and guild apprenticeships suffered a fatal blow. Human labor has been replaced by machines, the past individual manual workshop production has been replaced by large-scale industrial production, guild apprenticeships have no longer adapted or even began to hinder the development of large-scale production. At the same time, the appeal of the middle class and proletariat for formal education led to the gradual rise of vocational education in schools. Collectively negotiated factory apprenticeships linger, but are increasingly informal. However, from the development of apprenticeship, this stage of apprenticeship not only did not develop but also went backwards.

In the 20th century, just when apprenticeships were supposed to be dying out, they were reborn in Germany. In 1920, Germany officially renamed the continuing education school as "vocational school". The continuing education school was gradually incorporated into the vocational education system. The dual system of vocational training in enterprises and vocational education in schools was basically formed. In 1969, Germany promulgated the law of vocational education, marking the establishment of German dual system. The emergence of German dual system is regarded as the secret weapon of Germany's rapid economic development. Successful experience is imitated by western countries one after another, and apprenticeship is widely used in modern society, which brings a new wave of research and practice of apprenticeship to a climax.

The emergence of apprenticeship in China can be traced back to the slave society and its continuous evolution in feudal society. In the pre-qin period, China had a relatively complete apprenticeship system. At that time, in order to pass on the skills of handicraft industry and prevent the technology from being transferred, the family inheritance was initially adopted. After breaking the family scope, we had a folk apprenticeship. Private apprenticeships are private agreements between masters and apprentices and are not bound by any organization.

After qin and han dynasties, the training system for government craftsmen was gradually improved. In addition to the folk apprenticeship system, the official apprenticeship system also appeared in the inheritance of handicraft industry in ancient China. In the tang dynasty, strict regulations were made on the teaching of skills by government craftsmen to ensure the effect of apprentice training, and the apprenticeship system was relatively perfect.

In the middle and late feudal period, with the development of industry and commerce, guild organizations appeared, and the traditional apprenticeship system gradually changed into an educational mechanism attached to the guild system. In modern times, the emerging industrial capitalists began to challenge the old guild system for profit, and gradually alienated the apprentice group into the cheapest labor force, and the traditional apprenticeship gradually declined.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, on the one hand, a large number of unemployed workers were in urgent need of jobs; on the other hand, economic recovery and national construction were in urgent need of a large number of technicians. The state promulgated relevant policies to encourage enterprises to explore apprenticeship, which objectively promoted the continuation and continuous improvement of traditional apprenticeship in new China. After the completion of the socialist transformation, the demand for technical personnel increased. In some areas, practices such as shortening the apprenticeship training period appeared. Finally, "apprentices would not learn and masters would not teach" emerged. The state introduced policies, which gave birth to a number of agricultural middle schools and secondary vocational schools on the basis of part-time study, forming an embryonic form of apprenticeship with modern significance.

After the reform and opening up, the state made clear that apprenticeship training is still an important way of employee education, and made clear provisions on the details of apprenticeship. With the establishment of the market economy system, the school vocational education system was gradually established, and the traditional apprenticeship system was gradually replaced.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, vocational education has achieved rapid development. While cultivating a large number of technical talents, some problems have been exposed and modern apprenticeships that can meet the needs of the new situation are emerging.

Although the western modern apprenticeships have time is different, but in the past to modern apprenticeship development stage of manifestation, is social productivity development to a certain stage, the product of skilled personnel cannot meet the needs of the development of social production, are professional education system bottlenecks, and also have to seek breakthrough solution. The modern apprenticeship system in China and the west has abandoned the shortcomings of the previous apprenticeship system and realized the organic combination of traditional apprenticeship and modern vocational education, aiming at cultivating students and meeting the needs of the society, schools, enterprises and students.

Many western countries have turned modern apprenticeship into a national development strategy. They have not only formulated relevant incentive policies such as labor and education to provide legal protection for apprenticeship, but also set up some corresponding management and supervision institutions to strictly regulate the operation of apprenticeship. In addition, many countries provide some subsidies and training funds for stakeholders in various ways to motivate them to participate in modern apprenticeships. Although China has introduced some policies, they are only at the trial and trial stage and have not been implemented nationwide. In addition, in the pilot process, supporting incentive policies and measures are not perfect, and it is difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of colleges, institutions and enterprises, so the development of modern apprenticeship in China is still in the initial stage.

Western countries pay attention to the mobilization of all social forces in the implementation of modern apprenticeship, including the government, industry steering committees, trade unions, enterprises, schools, and even the emergence of third-party training or intermediary agencies. Although there are many stakeholders, most countries, after years of practice and exploration, have gradually formed a relatively mature and balanced cooperation mechanism, including at least the government, industry, trade unions and schools. In China, the range of policy incentives is relatively small, the number of stakeholders participating in modern apprenticeship is relatively small, and a mature and balanced cooperation mechanism has not yet been formed, which is still in the exploration stage.

Modern apprenticeships achieve the goal of combining school-based knowledge learning with business-based skill learning. Schools and enterprises, as the two main bodies of education, jointly undertake the responsibility of cultivating talents. Modern apprenticeship in the west is a talent training model based on work-oriented learning. In the process of talent training, enterprises, rather than governments and training institutions, play a core role. This is mainly reflected in the following aspects: enterprises are the standard setters of vocational ability and the main training place of apprenticeship. In China, schools are still the main venues and play a leading role in talent cultivation.

In the western modern apprenticeship system, learners have dual identities: students in school and apprentices in enterprises, and the two identities are mainly apprenticeships. Young people do not enter the modern apprenticeship programme until they have gained apprenticeship in a business, and then they can gain student status in a vocational school. In China, although learners have dual identities, they are mainly students. Young people are admitted by vocational colleges as students, and then they sign an agreement to become apprentices under the cooperation framework between schools and enterprises.

At present, China's economic development is facing a critical period of structural adjustment and upgrading, especially the cultivation of high-quality skilled professionals. While vigorously developing vocational education in China, we can learn from some experience of modern apprenticeship in the west, formulate supporting policies, deepen the reform of combining work with study in vocational education, increase financial support and investment, mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties, and build a modern apprenticeship talent training model suitable for China.

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