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The spirit of adventure in English Marine novels

2019-11-07 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The spirit of adventure in English Marine novels,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国海洋小说中的冒险精神。作为大英帝国意识形态的有力载体,19世纪的英国海洋小说给予世界重要影响。维多利亚时代,英国涌现出了许多以冒险为主题的海洋小说,它们为读者提供了认知、探索新世界的途径,其中包含了诸多英雄人物,而这些英雄人物的特点之一就是具备冒险精神。

As a powerful carrier of the ideology of the British empire, British Marine novels in the 19th century have exerted an important influence on the world.

The British conquered the Spanish Armada in the battle of 1588, and then became the "master of the sea". By the 19th century, Britain had become the world's largest colonial power, ruling about a quarter of the world's territory and population. In order to consolidate the colonial system it established on a global scale, Britain not only exported a large amount of capital to the colonies, but also exercised cultural control over the colonies. The key to cultural control was to spread ideology in the colonies. "As a means of spreading ideology, British fiction exerts a constant influence on the whole world." During this period, a large number of Marine novels emerged, which had a distinct imperial colonial color, a clear sense of empire, and a special imperial colonial discourse. They were "part of the cause of imperialism in a sense, and they served the purpose of propaganda and strengthening imperialism". Contemporary American cultural criticism theorists EdwardW. Said in his book Culture and Imperialism to reveal the text creation consciousness, cultural construction and empire between the "conspiracy" phenomenon.

The royal pirates and the royal navy played a prominent role in the British colonial history. Both in reality and fiction represent a privileged identity. In addition, they have a remarkable sense of adventure and are an icon to many British people.

The pirate community was instrumental in the development of the empire. The period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century is known to historians as the "golden age" of piracy. It was these brave pirates who helped Britain defeat the Spanish Armada in the battle of 1588. In the war of Spanish succession, pirate ships plundered the ships of hostile countries in the name of "armed civilian ships", which accumulated a large amount of capital for Britain, and Britain's economy developed rapidly. The pirates wrote a new chapter in the history of colonial expansion. Some of the most famous pirates in British history are HenrvJennings, Francis Drake, Edward Thatch and Bartholomew Roberts. These pirates who have been granted "privateering licenses" and successfully pillaged the wealth of Britain will not only receive rewards from queen Elizabeth, but also be respected and loved by many British people. In the minds of the people, they are simply national heroes. Treasure island is a pirate literature under such a social and historical background. There are plenty of pirates in the novel: flint, silver, black dog, pew... Except for flint, all the pirates are famous pirates of the "golden age". Flint is a pirate captain and the first pirate in the novel. The captain was such a high honor in his heart that he had no sooner checked into Jim's hotel than he was called captain, and he never tired of boasting about his past exploits at sea. It is conceivable that pirates had a very high status in the British society at that time, and the pirate captain as the leader of the pirates, his status is self-evident. Ralph in coral island is not willing to trade only on the coast. He aspires to be a great captain. The captain in the brave captain also represents a high degree of authority. Anyone who challenges the captain's authority will be punished. Moreover, in treasure island, pew is blind and silver is lame. To gain the confidence of Jim, livesey, trelawney, and others, pew claimed to have "lost the precious sight of his eyes in the duty of defending his country," while silver claimed to have "lost his leg in the service of his country under the immortal hawker." It sounds very noble and great. Apparently, they were good at reading other people's minds, so they managed to get on board. "All the sailors respected him, even obeyed him. He talks to everyone in his own way, and even does something for everyone." "Long John is very dear to my heart," said livesey.

"At the same time, piracy also contributed to the growth of the British navy, indirectly stimulating British colonial expansion." In treasure island, Jill's father named his hotel general benbow. General benbow was a famous British naval officer at the end of the 18th century. Gill's father especially admired him and named his hotel after him and his title. General benbow was based on the famous general Wilson. At the battle of the Nile in 1798, general Wilson's British fleet wiped out napoleon's French fleet in the Mediterranean and became the greatest maritime hero of the victorians.

The British government dubbed pirates and navies "royal" and asked them to create wealth for themselves, so pirates and navies became spokesmen for the British empire. They have a remarkable spirit of adventure and have made great contributions to the cause of imperialism. Many citizens embraced and followed, eager to be heroes like them.

Victorian English educator Thomas Arnold attached great importance to the role of physical training in the reform of public schools. Through sports, students acquire many excellent characters and develop their manhood. Many educators believe that it was sport that held the British empire together. However, later generations can be said to Arnold's imitation is too much. The result of overemphasis on physical training is the worship of force. Writers construct and endorse the values of the British empire through texts. Therefore, the English novels of this period are filled with a "blood smell".

Treasure island, written in the second half of the 19th century, shows a series of violent storms accompanied by violence. When captain flint knocked at the door, he knocked "with a stick like a putter that he carried with him", which showed that he was used to force. Silver, a ruthless character, plotted with Tom to kill Jim's gang, saying he would "kill them like a herd of pigs," and that he would rip trelawney's head off himself, and then kill Tom and merry. Before Jim, silver also gradually show the real features: "I can be sure that he is looking to grab the treasure, find and boarded the under cover of darkness when spanoulis' new pull, on this island of each upright throats are cut, as he had intended to full of sin and treasure, to sail away." Indeed, the characters in treasure island mainly rely on force to solve problems. Known as the "imperialist poet" and "imperial trumpeter", Kipling's works all contain strong imperialist ideas, and he is very keen on the description of violent scenes. "Like Victorian educators, Kipling always believed in the role of fists and sticks in the education of youth." The hero of "brave captain", Harvey is taught like a stick: at the beginning, he belittling, framed fishermen, captain trauper mercilessly gave Harvey a blow on the nose; while he worked, trauper's son, Dan, supervised him with a whip. Even Dan said, "I've been there. The first time dad beat me up was the last time -- the first time I went out to sea, I felt like I wanted to throw up all the time. I know that." Behind the bludgeon-style teaching was clearly the worship of force by traupa. Overemphasis on physical training was the seed of military worship, which accumulated physical strength for the colonial expansion of the empire, and the corresponding spirit of adventure. A person who loves sports and always likes to resort to force is always unsatisfied with the status quo. He often realizes his life value by taking risks. An adventurous person must have a strong body.

The Victorian era saw the emergence of many novels themed with adventure, which provided readers with a way to understand and explore the new world. These novels contained many heroes, and one of the characteristics of these heroes was the spirit of adventure.

Every main character in treasure island has an adventurous spirit. When captain flint appeared, "his tarred whip hung over the shoulders of his shaggy blue coat; His hands were rough and scarred with black, broken nails; The saber scar ran across one cheek, dirty and leaden. This poignant description of captain flint's adventures at sea gives the reader a vague sense of his wild power. Pew's blindness, the black dog's "two fingers missing from the left hand," and silver's "left leg amputated up to the hip, and a crutch under the left arm, which he used with surprising dexterity, and which he hopped about like a bird," were all traces of adventure stamped on their bodies. Captain flint was always ready to tell his story. All these experiences were captain flint's pride, and no horror could dampen curiosity. The country is a closed little world, the arrival of captain flint undoubtedly added to the fun of the villagers, to satisfy their curiosity about the outside world. At the same time, the country people's innermost feelings of adventure is also gradually awakened. When Jim got the treasure map of treasure island from captain flint's sea-trunk, he was excited, "full of visions of navigation and the most enticing expectations of strange islands and adventures," and "spent hours brooding over the map," remembering every detail of it. It was not just the distant treasure that Jim wanted so much, but the adventure of a foreign land.

At the beginning of coral island, Ralph says: "to travel the world has been and is always my favorite thing. It fills my heart with joy and is the sunshine of my life." Even though he had heard of the bloodthirsty people on the coral islands in the south sea, he was most interested in the coral islands and was determined to leave his parents and roam the south sea. Jack said that he had enjoyed reading travel books since childhood, which expressed his desire for an adventurous life. The pursuit of adventure spirit must be realized through material carrier. In the 19th century, with the help of the products of the industrial revolution, the British went abroad to pursue economic interests and promote British civilization. Ships such as "hispaniola" in treasure island, "arrow" in "coral island" and "home from sea" in "brave captain" are the external conditions that guarantee the hero to embark on a journey to foreign lands, which are all thanks to the development of industrial civilization. The essence of industrial civilization lies in the exploration and transformation of nature, which is driven by the spirit of adventure.

In fact, the British spirit of adventure is ancient: it has inspired the British people and promoted the vigorous development of British civilization since the great voyage. It has been deeply cast into the blood of the British nation, has become the national spirit of Britain, to the peak of the British empire more and more manifest, has also become the spirit of the 19th century. The spirit of adventure in this period is mainly derived from idolatry and military worship, which is the symbol of the value concept of the British empire. The rise of adventure narrative makes the spirit of adventure spread through texts and permeates into the thoughts of colonial culture in tangible or intangible forms, while the background of adventure narrative is often inseparable from the ocean. British Marine literature in the 19th century was particularly prosperous. They took the sea as the background or object of their writing, and dared to imagine the overseas colonies through adventure narration. Among them, novels were the most popular. Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. It is the sea that gave birth to British civilization, British spirit of adventure and opened the channel for Britain to sail to the outside world. "The overseas colonization from the 16th century provided literature with a creative context from a world perspective", while "literature created or provided channels for the communication and dissemination of colonial images and ideals". The British colonists built an empire in a geographical sense by using powerful ships to expand territory, while the novel, as a text, participated in the construction of an empire in a cultural sense. The British empire not only transplanted its political system and economic model to the colonies, but also embedded its cultural thoughts into the ideology of the colonies. The text of the novel and the construction of the empire interact with each other. In this sense, literature is not merely a pastime for readers. This is especially worth our attention and reflection in the current complex and changeable international situation.

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