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Social contract theory

2019-11-01 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Social contract theory,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了社会契约论。“契约”一词属于经济概念,意思是共同交易,它强调的是交易双方或多方的合意。社会契约概念最初来自围观的经济领域,然后成为一个宏观的政治范畴。近代西方社会契约论的主要代表人物有霍布斯、洛克和卢梭。霍布斯是近代最早期探讨社会契约论思想的哲学家,他认为国家起源于社会契约,人与人之间只有转让自己的权力给君主,达成契约才能保全自己不受侵害。洛克认为政府的权利来自被统治者的认可,而且人民的“公共意志”至关重要。

The social contract theory of modern western thinkers is a relatively systematic theory on the origin, nature and basic principles of public affairs of the state. Among them, the social contract theory of Hobbes and Locke plays an important role in the development of modern western philosophy. Although Hobbes and Locke's thoughts on social contract have similar historical background and ideological origin, they differ in philosophical basis, contract content and contract characteristics, so they derive two different states of government.

The term "contract" is an economic term meaning a joint transaction, which emphasizes the agreement of two or more parties to a transaction. The concept of social contract first came from the economic sphere of onlookers and then became a macro political sphere. The main representatives of modern western social contract theory are Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. Hobbes is the most early modern philosopher who discusses the idea of social contract. He believes that the state originates from the social contract, and only when people transfer their power to the monarch, can they reach a contract to protect themselves from infringement. Locke believed that the power of government came from the consent of the governed, and that the "public will" of the people was essential.

Hobbes was born to a country clergyman in England, raised by an uncle, and after graduating from Oxford became a private tutor to a nobleman. He was very peace-loving, timid, cautious and sensitive by nature. Fear, he once said, was his twin brother. "This fear of death by violence is a profound expression of the strongest and most fundamental of all desires, the original, self-preservation desire, which is the sole source of all justice and morality." At the age of 94, Hobbes witnessed the vicissitudes of the English civil war and the upper power. Because Hobbes personally experienced the individual migration and the cruel indifference between people during the English civil war, he had a strong desire to establish an absolute monarchy and to use this powerful power to ensure the most basic needs of human existence.

Natural philosophy of England developed rapidly at that time, and natural philosophy took "nature" as the object and almost became the focus of that era. Through the study of geometry, Hobbes discovered the accuracy of the proof of the application of geometry to politics. He tried to apply the principles of mathematics to social and political phenomena, and constructed a scientific system about human body, human emotion and even the citizens of a country according to the principles of geometry. So he established his philosophy, mechanical materialism.

Locke was born in Britain. He was a British philosopher and the pioneer of empiricism. He was also the first person to fully elaborate the thought of constitutional democracy. Locke was brought up to a strict education by a Puritan father who fought in the parliamentary army during the civil war. Locke was trained in the basics of classical literature before going to Oxford. In 1640, the British bourgeois revolution broke out. This revolution lasted for half a century, and the ultimate purpose of the revolution was to establish the principles of liberalism. Liberalism was a new thing that needed theoretical elaboration and summary. Locke completed this mission in his theory of government. In his book, he focuses on what he thinks is the original state of nature of man, and USES this state of nature as a starting point for thinking about political issues.

The outbreak of the British bourgeois revolution was the product of the British king and government at that time, which threatened the life, property and personal freedom of the majority of the people. Therefore, the people rose up to overthrow it, which was also the practice of Locke's thought. It shows that the enlightenment of thought promoted the revolution.

First of all, both Hobbes and Locke believed that the initial state of human life was the state of nature. Hobbes regarded the state of nature as "the war of all men against all men", because, according to Hobbes, "man is not a social animal, his nature is selfish, and the motive force of his actions is self-preservation. So the state of nature is a state of war. Locke argued that to understand political rights correctly and trace their origins, it is necessary to examine the original state of human nature. Locke's state of nature is "a state of perfect freedom", in which people decide their actions and deal with property and personal problems as they see fit according to the natural law, without any interference from anyone. At the same time, "it is also a state of equality in which all rights and jurisdiction are reciprocal and no one has more rights than others."

Second, both are in a difficult state of nature. According to Hobbes, the initial condition of life is that everyone lives according to his own nature. He called it the state of nature. In this state, everyone has to realize all his rights, thus leading to the "war of all against all" state. Here, there is no good and evil, no right and wrong, only strength and deception. Industry and agriculture cannot develop. Science and culture cannot advance. Everything is in chaos. Hobbes advocated the natural law to get rid of the state of war, and everyone must obey the natural law so that everyone can preserve himself. And Locke's natural state is not perfect free state. Although people enjoy rights in the state of nature, such enjoyment is very unstable and threatened at any time. Moreover, most people do not strictly abide by justice and justice, resulting in very unsafe property rights. Freedom comes with danger and fear. Locke, in contrast to Hobbes, does not limit people in a state of nature to a particular social environment, where everyone has natural rights. However, due to the lack of written law and related political and legal measures, it is difficult to protect people's natural rights.

Hobbes' history of philosophy is mechanical materialism. From this standpoint, he discusses human psychological activities and explains human emotions, desires and rationality. He pointed out that, like all things in nature, nature is self-preservation, seeking profit and avoiding harm and endless pursuit of personal interests. Human nature, he argues, is inherently evil. Hobbes pointed out that in the state of nature, "everyone is equal", and people should pursue the same goals. When everyone pursues interests but cannot share them, conflicts will arise. Locke also believes that people's initial state of life is the natural state, but Locke thinks that the natural state is "perfect" but unstable. The great difference between Hobbes and Locke is whether it is intrinsically evil or intrinsically good. Locke gently criticized Hobbes' description of human nature and the state of nature. Whether Hobbes or Locke, the equality of all people and the common hope of mankind are emphasized, because the mutual benefit and equality of the contractors are the premise of the contract.

On the question of natural law and natural rights, Hobbes and Locke also have different views. In leviathan, Hobbes divides human nature into two conflicting parts: desire and reason. Hobbes does not believe that natural law can make people live in peace, because the moral values advocated by natural law are contrary to human nature. For natural law to work to suppress human nature, it depends on a more powerful right, that is, the state. In Hobbes's view, people in the state of nature are unrestrained, abuse leads to war, natural law constrains human rights and guides people out of the state of nature, while the state practices natural law at a higher level to ensure that it can suppress human nature. Locke stressed the natural law of human rights - natural rights. Unlike Hobbes, Locke's natural law was not designed to suppress humanity, but to teach people not to violate the freedom, life and property of others. Finally, in Hobbes' state of nature, man has a natural right which he can exercise at will, and the state of nature is tragic, and if any man acquires this right, the state of nature will end. But if people agree to meet and make laws, the question is: one, who is the first to obey the law; Two, who will enforce the law. This creates a dilemma. There is no one to protect the first person to form the law. The solution to this dilemma is for everyone to pick a man who makes and executes laws and to acknowledge his actions in the same way -- that is, to make contracts. Hobbes' theory of contract creates a state that is a single class of society, governed by a sovereign who represents the personality of the many and is responsible for protecting the many. And the multitude has renounced all their rights and can only move within the limits not forbidden by the laws of the sovereign. Locke's social contract is really a two-fold process, where people are able to express their will before the state exists. People first agreed with each other to form a civil society, to live together as a group of people. It's a contract that everyone has with each other. Then, people made a contract with the ruler to form a government or state. Unlike Hobbes, when people enter into a contract to form a state, they surrender not all the rights, but the rights of those who act as the executor of the natural law. Locke's social contract is a dual society, and even if the government on the one side of the covenant is violent, breaks the contract, and people overthrow him, they don't go back to total disorder, they can choose someone else.

To sum up, both Hobbes' and Locke's theories of social contract are used to explain the origin and nature of the state to counter the "divine right of Kings". Although their theories are essentially the same, there are many differences in the theories of social contract. As far as the philosophical foundation is concerned, Hobbes holds that human nature is evil, and the philosophical foundation is mechanical materialism. Locke, on the other hand, believes that human nature is good, and its philosophical foundation is empiricism. In terms of the contract, Hobbes thinks that people have transferred all their rights by way of authorization; Locke, on the other hand, emphasized that people pretend to have part of their rights through trust. Hobbes insists that absolutism and totalitarianism are not bound by contract and have absolute rights; Locke advocated the rule of law and separation of powers, and believed that people had their own natural human rights and the right to resist.

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