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The development of American logistics industry

2019-08-15 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The development of American logistics industry,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国物流业的发展。19世纪50年代前后,随着对物流服务需求的出现,美国的物流行业开始兴起。自20世纪70年代以来,国家政策的制定与调整为美国物流行业带来了许多机遇和挑战,最突出的是1980年左右所实行的放松管制,它极大地激发了物流行业的潜力,推动美国国内物流行业往更高的领域发展。同时,计算机网络与物流系统这两大领域的飞速发展,为物流实践提供了更多有利的资源与优势,最突出的特征是EDI的运用与专家系统的利用。现阶段,美国的物流行业建设已基本完善,包括物流内涵的拓展、过程的延伸、覆盖面的扩大以及物流管理的日益专业化、信息化和标准化。

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Around the 1850s, with the emergence of demand for logistics services, the logistics industry in the United States began to rise. The perfect railway construction provides very favorable transportation conditions for the long-distance express industry in the United States. After the end of the World War II, in order to improve the flexibility of military movement and speed up the efficiency of material supply, the us government vigorously developed the domestic highway routes and optimized and adjusted the layout of highways. On the other hand, the rapid recovery of the national economy of the United States and the prosperity and development of the automobile industry drive the continuous improvement of highway construction, which is undoubtedly a heavy blow to the express delivery industry, which is highly dependent on railway transportation. Highway transportation has many advantages that railway transportation does not have, so highway transportation gradually replaces the main position of railway transportation in the logistics industry.

Since the 1970s, the formulation and adjustment of national policies have brought many opportunities and challenges to the American logistics industry, the most prominent of which was the deregulation implemented around 1980, which greatly stimulated the potential of the logistics industry and promoted the development of the domestic logistics industry to a higher level. At the same time, the rapid development of computer network and logistics system provides more advantageous resources and advantages for logistics practice. The most prominent features are the application of EDI and the use of expert system.

Around 1985, logistics service has become an indispensable part of People's Daily life, people have a higher understanding and understanding of the logistics industry, coupled with the rapid development of national economy, the progress of science and technology to bring more funds and technical support for the logistics industry. People gradually realize the relationship among logistics, operation and production, and take it as the core content to improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

At the present stage, the construction of logistics industry in the United States has been basically improved, including the expansion of logistics connotation, the extension of process, the expansion of coverage, and the increasingly specialized, informationized and standardized logistics management.

By contrast, China's logistics develops with the process of reform and opening up. From the starting point, China is about 40 years later than the United States. Therefore, this paper aims to seek enlightenment for the problems existing in China's logistics industry from the experience of the United States.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, China's logistics industry has been in a state of rapid growth, the industry scale continues to expand, logistics construction continues to optimize and improve, service quality is further improved, the state policy support continues to increase, these favorable conditions have become an important advantage in the development of China's logistics industry. However, China's logistics industry still has room for development, mainly with the following problems:

In recent years, the increasing of domestic population and the development of national economy have greatly increased people's demand for transportation. However, China's transportation construction obviously cannot adapt to this huge change. From the perspective of the world, according to the international transportation network density meter algorithm, China's transportation infrastructure compared with some developed countries, there is still a certain gap. In addition, our country each kind of logistics with the area layout lacks the norm. Traffic congestion in the centralized distribution of logistics parks leads to low delivery efficiency and frequent traffic accidents. The problem with too dispersed logistics parks is that distribution rules of logistics companies are difficult to find, which increases the cost of transportation and distribution.

From supply perspective, the low degree of specialization of logistics supply structure in China, there are many problems and deficiencies of enterprise equipment, some companies ignore the importance of the optimization of logistics equipment development of the enterprise competitive power, to a great extent, reduces the logistics service quality, the credibility of the enterprise and logistics services efficiency cannot be improved.

In 2017, the total cost of social logistics in China accounted for about 14.6% of GDP, which was 4% ~ 5% lower than that in China. Among the reasons for the high logistics cost, the oil price is relatively fixed and difficult to control, which fluctuates with the international oil price. However, the payment of various customs clearance fees, road and bridge fees, fines, inspection fees and other fees accounts for about 60-70% of the transportation cost, which may be an important reason for the high logistics cost.

For the United States, logistics has developed into a relatively complete professional field. Since 1960, many American universities have successively added logistics management majors to cultivate logistics management talents, and relevant education has been fully developed. The cultivation of logistics professionals is relatively backward in our country, the cultivation of logistics talents was preliminary development, although now operates logistics professional undergraduate course also has a lot of universities, however, due to a late start, compared to the United States, nearly 50 years behind the time, causes our country lack of adequate logistics management talent resource for a long time, lack of professional research team.

The logistics industry in the United States has gradually grown into an advanced industry with the following development experience:

First, it provides good infrastructure conditions for the development of logistics industry. The United States has a relatively sound logistics infrastructure system. In terms of highways, the United States had more than 92,000 kilometers of expressways in 2018. In the field of railway, the total mileage built by the United States is the highest in the world. Currently, the total mileage built is as high as 260,000 kilometers, of which more than 80% are first-class railways, and the total mileage including track mileage is as high as 350,000 kilometers. In the area of waterways, the country has 26 systems of all sizes, with 42,000 kilometers of navigable rivers. In addition, the great lakes have a navigable length of about 3,000 kilometers. In the field of aviation, the country ranks the third in terms of operating profit and the number of passengers transported. It has built five large aviation hubs and four large aviation enterprises. In addition, the industry concentration rate is very high.

Second, it creates a relatively loose environment for the development of logistics industry and promotes the unprecedented progress of the country's logistics and transportation industry. After the 1980 s, the country has issued a large number of relevant legal regulations, began to decrease of highway transport, rail transport, air transport and water transport industry regulation, expand the transport enterprises in various fields related permissions, including: the threshold of entering the market, operating channels, contracted transport, transport agents, cooperation agreements on transportation and freight rates, etc., under the increasingly fierce market competition, falling freight rates, at the same time promote the enhancement of service quality.

Third, we will actively promote the development of third-party logistics. The third party logistics mainly focuses on warehousing and transportation, providing modern and systematic logistics services for enterprises. In the 1990s, the third party logistics began to emerge in the country. Due to different requirements of different industries, the third party logistics industry gradually grew. Currently, the country's third-party logistics services cover not only transportation and storage services, but also advisory, information and regulatory services, striving to develop a comprehensive and comprehensive approach to consumers and promote the establishment of a win-win partnership with consumers. Third-party logistics enterprises have a positive impact on the progress of the American transportation industry, promoting the overall development of the entire logistics industry, and at the same time reducing the logistics and transportation costs of related enterprises, promoting the construction of related enterprises. Fourth, attach importance to expanding the talent team in logistics and transportation. Since the 1960s, the American logistics management association has always regarded it as its main responsibility to promote the progress of logistics transportation technology and regulatory means, and expand the logistics professional team. Companies also recognize that the development of the logistics industry has a broad prospect, began to shift the focus of its increasing economic income, from production to shipping, a large number of logistics companies to create a separate organization and personnel team property flow transportation technology, makes every effort to speed up the progress of the configuration of logistics and logistics regulatory pathway, so as to better enhance the logistics company's competitive advantage.

The logistics industry in the United States develops rapidly, while the logistics industry in China can get the following inspirations from its development experience:

Even though China has made rapid progress in the basic allocation of logistics in recent years, different transportation means cannot connect each other barrier-free, so it is not possible to make the best use of China's railway transport, highway transport, waterway transport and air transport resources. The limited capacity of railway transportation and the high cost of highway transportation all result in the failure of China's logistics and transportation industry to make better progress. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the innovation of the supervision mechanism of railway and highway in China, so as to remove the institutional barriers that restrict the basic distribution function of logistics.

Promote logistics construction plan and the establishment of related system policy, with the help of the current system of logistics industry related system, for those who hinder the effect to the construction of the logistics industry of proper ban, sorting system and improve the measures, to develop a better able to accelerate the progress of modern logistics industry in the new policy and mechanism, make the most of the government in the process of construction of the logistics industry guidance, regulation and function of the organization.

From the experience of the development of the logistics industry in the United States, third-party logistics drives the progress of the whole logistics supply chain management, reduces the cost of logistics and transportation, promotes the operating efficiency of enterprises, and improves the flexibility of funds. Suggestions in reference to the experience in our country, on the basis of research on the reform of the logistics industry related, focus on guiding the third party and the construction of the fourth party logistics, to change the service center of gravity, shifts from the transport and storage service to provide consulting services, information and supervision is given priority to, to a perfect logistics handling measures for consumers. Third party logistics enterprises and fourth party logistics enterprises greatly promote the reform of the logistics industry, can not be ignored. In the establishment of the policy, we should better provide services for the third party and the fourth party logistics companies, and promote the better and faster development of the logistics industry with the help of the progress of the third party and the fourth party logistics.

Our country must insist on guiding colleges and universities to develop and set up modern logistics majors and courses according to market requirements. At present, due to the shortage of logistics personnel, unclear training objects, imperfect training mechanism and the lack of relevant logistics professionals, the contemporary logistics industry is essential to the training of professional supervisors. Meanwhile, companies, industry associations and non-governmental teaching organizations are encouraged to actively participate in the training and teaching of modern logistics talents. Combined with the previous methods adopted by the United States, the vocational education, training and qualification certification mechanism and other relevant certification mechanisms for Chinese logistics industry practitioners are gradually formulated.

Through the summary of China's logistics industry development experience, combined with China's logistics infrastructure capacity is still insufficient, equipment standardization degree is low, high cost, lack of professional talents and other problems, from the experience of the United States to obtain the current logistics industry development and macroeconomic coordination needs to be enhanced enlightenment. China should seize the opportunity to increase the investment in logistics infrastructure, create a good macro environment for logistics industry, encourage the innovative development of logistics industry, accelerate the training of logistics professionals and other aspects of manpower, improve the development level of China's logistics industry, and promote the high-quality development of China's logistics industry.

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