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The development of artificial intelligence in Europe

2019-08-15 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The development of artificial intelligence in Europe,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了欧洲人工智能发展。目前,欧洲约有1600家处于早期阶段的人工智能软件公司。随着人工智能创业项目的增多,这一数字还在不断增长。欧洲的人工智能创业企业生态系统正在走向成熟。这些公司在发展过程中,与其他国家的人工智能企业面临相似的挑战,包括吸引更多的投资和人才,同行业内现有企业及已形成规模的企业开展差异化竞争等。在行业发展方面,90%着眼于“垂直业务”,即人工智能的应用业务功能或行业内应用。由于对保健医疗的重视,很多初创企业专注于医疗健康领域。这些公司也为金融服务、零售和媒体娱乐提供了良好的服务。而在制造业、农业等相对传统部门的人工智能初创公司,市场机会相对有限。

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Artificial intelligence is a rapidly developing technology that resembles a computer program, but is also considered a disruptive technology that is likely to lead the fourth technological revolution. At present, the development of artificial intelligence in Europe has its own characteristics, but also encountered some problems. China is making rapid progress in artificial intelligence, but also faces problems that need to be solved. We can learn from foreign experience and lessons to prevent these problems from becoming obstacles to the development of artificial intelligence.

Although artificial intelligence is a technology, it differs from previous technological innovations. Previous technological progress, to a large extent, is the amplification and extension of human physical strength and perceptual ability. But artificial intelligence is an AId to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence, especially with software that learns and improves through experience, enables the abilities of the human mind, such as understanding, reasoning, planning and communication, to be implemented more effectively and efficiently, and at lower and lower cost. At the same time, AI is more data-centric. For some routine analysis tasks, AI can generate new, data-based analysis, even if the analysis is always done with software. These features create new opportunities for AI in most business segments and consumer applications. Key AI products, services and functions that are currently familiar to the general public include self-driving cars, automated medical diagnostics, voice input for human-computer interaction, intelligent agents, automated data synthesis, and decision support systems. Overall, AI will have a wide range of applications in many industries that require a lot of time to collect, aggregate and analyze, such as finance, trade, manufacturing and healthcare. It can be sAId that many industries that are closely related to human beings will have the intervention of artificial intelligence.

There are many dimensions to measure the current development of artificial intelligence, and the application scope and level of artificial intelligence is one of them. Due to the significant effect of artificial intelligence on the improvement of enterprise and industry benefits, the application scale expands rapidly. It is estimated that one in seven large companies will adopt AI in the next 12 months, rising to two-thirds in 24 months. By the middle of 2019, AI will move from its early days in individual industries to the mAInstream. And as the supply of relevant software booms, AI will form an ecosystem that makes it more important than blockchAIns and the Internet of things. But every app has a leader and a laggard, and the rise in overall usage masks the difference in usage. Leaders take advantage of the advantages, increase investment, accelerate the speed of iteration and upgrade. In the industry, the leaders are financial services and high-tech companies, which are early adopters. RetAIl, healthcare, media and other "enablers" are accelerating. Government agencies, charities and other relatively slow development. Within companies, the leading force of AI has also moved from senior management to IT departments. Executives used to push AI for strategic reasons, but now focus more on how to make it work better. Therefore, in the future, many enterprise IT departments will become the mAIn driving force for planning and implementing AI projects. Overall, the range of AI applications will expand rapidly, and the application considerations will shift from "if" to "how" to make it more effective. Competition has come to the application level.

One is the replacement of jobs. If automation and robots replace some manual workers engaged in simple and repetitive work, then the automation of artificial intelligence is likely to replace many administrative jobs and even some highly skilled labor force, such as data collection and analysts in financial institutions. This substitution of human intelligence, not physical strength, could spark fears of artificial intelligence. Second, there is prejudice. The learning mode of artificial intelligence is trAIned by human based on data, which is likely to reflect prejudice agAInst gender or race, which may lead to personal economic loss and loss of employment opportunities. The third is to destroy trust. Recently, video, an artificial intelligence-assisted "face changing", has become popular on the Internet. If even video could be reinvented, the principle that seeing is believing would be undermined, and it would be easy to mislead individuals. As trust is broken, so will social order. Fourth, how to balance privacy and security. With the rapid development of face recognition technology, individuals' whereabouts and movements can be clearly tracked. Would this be an invasion of privacy? Or to what extent will the public tolerate trading privacy for security? These are all questions to consider.

There are about 1,600 early-stage AI software companies in Europe. That number is growing as the number of AI startups grows. In 2013, for example, one in 50 startups embraced the idea of AI, but now one in 12 startups puts AI at the heart of their value proposition. Europe's AI start-up ecosystem is maturing. In the process of development, these companies face similar challenges to AI enterprises in other countries, including attracting more investment and talents, and carrying out differentiated competition among existing and established enterprises in the same industry. In terms of industry development, 90% focus on "vertical business", i.e. applied business functions or intra-industry applications of artificial intelligence. Due to the emphasis on healthcare, many start-ups focus on healthcare. These companies also provide good services for financial services, retAIl and media and entertAInment. However, the market opportunities for AI start-ups in traditional sectors such as manufacturing and agriculture are relatively limited. About one in six companies has more than $8 million invested and is "growing." About 10 per cent of AI start-ups offer "horizontal business", the development of core AI technologies. But the 10 per cent are more favoured by investors, attracting about a fifth of venture capital.

On a country-by-country basis, BritAIn is certAInly the leader. There are about 500 AI start-ups in the UK, a third of Europe's total and twice as many as in any other country. Germany and France are also pushing ahead with artificial intelligence centres in Europe, and at a faster pace. Thanks to their strong economies, start-ups in both countries continue to receive investment and attract talent, which in turn provides positive feedback for economic growth and increased investment returns. SpAIn has recently encountered some difficulties in economic development, but with the superior location, relative Western Europe is more open, inclusive of social environment and better living environment, attracted immigrants from central and eastern Europe and other regions AI about entrepreneurship, so as to enrich its talent pool, also make SpAIn one of venture investment target countries. Its ability to attract talent has also contributed greatly to the development of the European AI industry. Italy has also shown strength beyond its size in developing core artificial intelligence technologies. On the one hand, it has similar advantages to SpAIn, but also has a wider application scenario and a better manufacturing base. Nordic countries, such as Sweden, Norway, Finland and so on, have unique technological advantages and profound foundation in the application and development of artificial intelligence, which also provides impetus for the local development of artificial intelligence.

First, the negative impact of brexit. The UK's tertiary industry, whether financial services or creative development, is a leading position in Europe and even the world. Many European artificial intelligence start-ups use the UK as their platform for venture capital financing. In the UK, AI start-ups are attracting talent from the continent. However, once brexit happens, the benign interaction between BritAIn and the European continent will be broken, BritAIn's status as a financial platform will be reduced, and it will be more difficult to attract talents. In the short term, European companies will be affected, but the UK will be affected more, which will interfere with the overall development of artificial intelligence in Europe. Second, too much emphasis on data protection, so that artificial intelligence into "cooking without rice" situation. The general data protection regulation promulgated by the European Union focuses on the protection of personal data. The regulations prohibit the use of data for different purposes, so AI companies cannot legally collect users' data and use it for AI algorithm trAIning, and the data becomes silent data. At the same time, the regulations stipulate that users own the data and can transfer it to other companies. On the one hand, this will bring trAIning errors; on the other hand, it will bring losses to the companies that collect and collate the data in the first place. From the perspective of the market, it is not reasonable enough, which is not conducive to the development of the artificial intelligence industry.

China's artificial intelligence is developing rapidly. According to the report on the development of artificial intelligence in China, by June 2018, there were 2,028 artificial intelligence enterprises in the United States, and 1,011 in mAInland China, ranking second in the world. At the same time, in terms of investment and financing, China also mAIntAIns a relatively high rate of growth. In 2017, the total investment and financing of AI-related enterprises in China reached 277.1 billion us dollars, with 369 financing events. Financing accounted for 70 per cent of the global total and 31 per cent of the financing transactions. Moreover, from 2013 to the first quarter of 2018, China has surpassed the United States to become the world's first country in terms of the total amount of artificial intelligence financing, but the United States still leads the world in terms of the number of investment and financing. This also shows that the number of innovative enterprises in the United States is relatively large, and the investment and financing received is relatively scattered, while in China, it is relatively more concentrated in large enterprises.

In addition, in terms of market size, China is also growing steadily. The size of China's artificial intelligence market has grown from 51.7 billion yuan in 2014 to an estimated 238.2 billion yuan in 2018, with an annual growth rate of about 50% from about 30%, according to data released by the China business research institute.

In addition to industrial development, China also performs well in artificial intelligence patents, which reflect technological strength. China, the United States and Japan ranked third among the countries/regions of technological origin in this field, accounting for 74% of the total patent disclosure. In terms of patent use, China's AI patent technology layout ranks the first place, while the proportion of authorized patents in the United States ranks the first in the world.

First, policy promotion and guarantee. In 2017, China released the next generation of artificial intelligence development plan, which proposes a three-step plan for China and its enterprises to play a leading role in the field of artificial intelligence. Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence by 2025; Global leadership in artificial intelligence by 2030. The plan comes ahead of plans by the United States and Russia this year to develop artificial intelligence. Second, data advantage. AI systems often need to be constantly updated for trAIning to improve. On the one hand, compared with the eu's excessive protection of personal data, China's data use regulations are relatively lax. The other is to reduce the isolation of data within the company. Seventy-eight per cent of China's leading companies keep their data in a centralized data pool, compared with 37 per cent in Europe and 43 per cent in the us. Third, the inherent data heritage of Chinese enterprises is less. European and American enterprise applications and data processes have taken shape, making it difficult to adjust for artificial intelligence. Chinese enterprises are less concerned about this.

One is personal privacy. Loose data management conditions in China are conducive to the evolution of artificial intelligence systems, but enterprises lack respect for personal privacy, and various applications collect customer data on a large scale, increasing the possibility of personal privacy disclosure. The personal information protection law has been included in the current legislative plan to promote a more standardized and orderly development of artificial intelligence. Second, the problem of personnel trAIning. The size of the artificial intelligence talent pool in the United States is more than 50 percent higher than that in China, while 60 percent of Chinese artificial intelligence enterprises stress that China is more short of talents than American or European enterprises. The third is the replacement of labor force by artificial intelligence and automation. About two-thirds of leading AI companies expect the technology to reduce the size of their workforce because of its potential replacement for intellectual workers, compared with a third of European companies. All these situations indicate that China's current artificial intelligence enterprises, relying on the huge market brought by the population, have developed rapidly in the application level and vertical industry, but still have a big gap with foreign countries in the development of core artificial intelligence technology, talent cultivation, privacy protection and other aspects. And artificial intelligence, automation development to replace the labor force, may bring economic and social impact also need to pay attention to, and solve as soon as possible.

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