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Vocational education in the United States

2019-08-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Vocational education in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的职业教育。美国实施12年义务教育,没有专门的职业学校,职业教育渗透在义务教育的各个阶段。高中阶段,除了学习文化必修课外,学生还应选修自己感兴趣或认为与自身未来发展有联系的职业课程。美国的职业教育具有极强的开放性,接受任何年龄段的适龄学生,只要有时间,想学一个课程或一个项目,随时可以进入学校接受一段时间的职业教育培训。美国职业教育紧跟市场对技能人才的需求。

Vocational education,美国职业教育,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

The United States implements 12 years of compulsory education, and there are no special vocational schools. Vocational education penetrates into every stage of compulsory education. Especially in high school, in addition to compulsory cultural courses, students should also choose vocational courses that they are interested in or think are related to their future development. There are roughly three ways to choose electives, one is the vocational and technical courses offered by my own high school, the other is the vocational and technical education center in my community, and the third is the community college in my community. Take YORK college of the city university of New York as an example. In 2016, seven college courses were offered to high school students. According to statistics, the pass rate of high school students reached more than 80%. Students can also choose to take summer courses so that they can have a clearer direction to enter the university. A total of 140 high school students from YORK college participated in the summer program in 2016. Vocational courses taken by students at the high school level can be credited to the corresponding courses at the university level.

The vocational education in the United States is extremely open. It accepts students of any age who want to learn a course or a project at any time and can enter the school for vocational education and training for a period of time. Take PASADENA CITY COLLEGE in California, which was founded in 1926, for example, students aged 25 to 39 accounted for 25.4%, and those over 40 accounted for 10.6%. In some community vocational and technical education centers, adult students are the main ones. George adey, the President of cuny's vocational branch, said the average age of the students was 36, and that many of them took online classes. Some vocational schools provide English teaching services and vocational education for newly arrived immigrants, so as to facilitate them to integrate into American society as soon as possible. But for community college students seeking a degree, city university of New York professors tell us that professors don't lower their academic requirements just because students have varying degrees. Therefore, for some students with poor basic knowledge, community colleges will set up a special kind of development course, focusing on the remedial study of mathematics, writing and other basic knowledge. This is understood to be an expression of the leniency of American universities.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the federal government has issued a number of laws to strengthen the legislative guarantee of vocational education. In the 1960s and 1970s, since a large number of retired soldiers needed skills training after the war, the government issued a number of laws to provide legal protection and financial support for vocational education. Vocational and technical education in the United States is not compulsory, but all kinds of vocational and technical education and training institutions are not for profit. It is funded by federal grants, state grants, local property taxes and student tuition fees. And according to relevant data, student tuition fee accounts for only 8% ~ 10%. East San Gabriel Valley ROP/TC vocational school, for example, charges about $7 per class hour for its certificate program, and most adult students receive government funding. According to relevant statistics, up to now, there are more than 1,200 community colleges in the United States, and more than 7 million people study in community colleges every year, including about 40% of full-time students and 60% of part-time students. Large community colleges are also facing financial pressure. Funding is decreasing year by year, while the increasing number of students is facing pressure to raise tuition fees. To cut costs, some colleges are cutting back on full-time professors and hiring adjunct professors. There are also community colleges that recruit international students and charge high tuition fees to increase their income.

Community college in the United States refers to the education and training schools established in the community, recognized and supervised by local educational administrative institutions, which mainly provide higher education, vocational and technical education, social cultural life education and other services for the members of the community. Community colleges can offer an associate's degree in arts and sciences, equivalent to a domestic associate's degree, usually two years. Nearly 50% of American college students have been trained by community colleges. Some of them have been enrolled in community colleges for two years and then entered higher level undergraduate programs. Some of them are employed. Community colleges are considered one of the most successful forms of vocational education. It mainly provides five kinds of education, one is vocational and technical education, obtained associate degree and professional technical level certificate; Second, remedial education, which provides short-term training for job changers; Third, to improve the quality of life for the community citizens to meet the interests of education; Fourth, academic education, in which students are transferred to four-year universities after graduation from community colleges. Fifth, special education provides training for people with disabilities to master a particular skill.

American vocational education keeps pace with the demand for skilled workers. In the United States, the popular vocational courses include early childhood education, nurse assistant, ventilation and air conditioning industry, pharmacist assistant, nursing for the aged and so on. And there are not many training programs to train skilled manufacturing workers as manufacturing moves out. Close cooperation between schools and enterprises in vocational education, schools employ teachers, in addition to education background and teaching qualification certificate, and generally require more than two years of relevant skills and work experience; Or directly employ the enterprise's outstanding engineers to the school as part-time teachers. Schools work with companies to develop teaching plans, design courses and even schedule courses; Send their own teachers to the enterprise training, so that teachers master the professional production line. The enterprise provides the school with the information of talent demand, selects the personnel to serve as the school advisory committee member, participates in the vocational school teaching evaluation inspection organized by the education committee at all levels. The form of school-enterprise cooperation is also reflected in the support of funds. For example, Cerritos college in California cooperates with general motors in its auto repair major, and the company provides a large number of practical training vehicles. All students who are qualified in this major are employed.

Vocational education in the United States, from the beginning to the development, in the key stage, accompanied by the corresponding legislative progress. Since the promulgation and implementation of the law of the People's Republic of China on vocational education in 1996, vocational education has made great progress, but there are still many unsatisfactory aspects in some specific problems. "Vocational education law" the relevant provisions are relatively macro, need the country or local government to introduce the corresponding supporting implementation regulations, rules or measures, to specific issues to be refined. The key points should be further clarified in terms of capital investment, school-enterprise cooperation and corresponding social treatment of vocational education graduates. Ensuring funding needs through legislation; Through tax incentives and other levers, enterprises are encouraged to give away equipment to vocational schools, provide internship opportunities for teachers and students, and jointly carry out applied research projects with schools. Regarding the treatment of vocational school graduates, although some people from the ministry of social security have recently stipulated that technicians and senior workers should receive relevant treatment in accordance with the requirements of undergraduate and junior college graduates, if they can be clearly defined in the legislation, their social recognition will be greatly improved.

From the perspective of American vocational education model, it is not the end of education, but a part of lifelong education. However, the object of vocational education in China is mainly middle school and high school graduates. Those who have joined the work are less likely to come back to receive vocational education, and the concept and system of lifelong education are relatively backward. In fact, the current situation in China is that the more highly educated practitioners, the more corresponding needs and understanding of continuing education; however, skilled workers do not pay enough attention to continuing education, mainly due to the lack of high income among skilled workers and their inability to pay for continuing education. At the same time, education channels are not smooth enough. Fortunately, the problem has changed a lot in recent years. All kinds of skills training and certification have been gradually included in the scope of financial subsidies in some provinces and cities, inspiring workers' determination to improve their skills through continuing education. Meanwhile, in May 2018, the state council issued the opinions on implementing a lifelong vocational skill training system, proposing to build a lifelong vocational skill training system. This will play a positive role in giving full play to the advantages of vocational colleges, unimpeded continuing education channels and expanding the functions of vocational colleges. Subsequently, local governments need to introduce corresponding financial and institutional guarantees to provide more convenient vocational education opportunities and support for various personnel to transfer to other posts, so as to promote the healthy development of vocational education and continuously improve the quality of workers.

In the United States, vocational courses offered by ordinary high school students are different from the education mode of separation of common job in high school in China. The two models can not tell which is better or worse, depending on the national conditions. But the idea of universal employment embodied in the American model is worth learning. At present, many provinces and cities in China also have corresponding policies for the integration of general vocational education. But in fact, under the guidance of the college entrance examination and without the corresponding institutional guarantee, the implementation of such policies is mostly a formality. Similarly, students from ordinary high schools and secondary vocational schools can transfer between each other, but in practice, there are also many difficulties such as curriculum system, different standards, and smooth transfer of student status. To solve the problem of vocational integration, and to enable high school students to learn vocational and technical courses while receiving general education, is conducive to the young people to better plan for a suitable future. At present, the country has a great investment in vocational education, especially in developed cities. As long as there is a corresponding system guarantee, vocational schools are fully capable of accepting electives of general high school students. On the one hand, the advantages of vocational schools can be better understood and recognized by the society. On the other hand, the vocational and technical courses of ordinary secondary schools are undertaken by nearby vocational schools. Ordinary secondary schools can concentrate on completing the tasks of ordinary education, and vocational and technical schools can give full play to the advantages of vocational education resources, avoid repeated investment and waste of resources, and realize complementary advantages and resource sharing. In addition, the mutual recognition and transfer of credits implemented by American vocational education should also be used for reference to improve the attractiveness of vocational education and promote the mutual connection between vocational education system and higher education system.

China's vocational education, at the level of higher vocational and secondary vocational, in the type, both under the jurisdiction of the education department of vocational high schools, and some social departments under the jurisdiction of the technical education, technical education and divided into intermediate workers, senior workers and technicians three levels. On the whole, there are many kinds of majors, and it is common for many schools in the same area to offer the same major. At present, the recognition of vocational schools in the whole society is still much lower than that of ordinary high schools. The competition between vocational schools is intensified by the competition for students, and the duplication of majors also leads to the waste of vocational education resources. In this regard, the positioning of American community colleges is worth learning. Local government response to the region of professional in a vocational college to carry on the overall planning coordination, system integration of teaching resources, give priority to combine the characteristics of the school and regional economic demand, the development of professional schools, cultivating professional advantage, avoid the specialties of randomness and repeatability, avoid the unordered competition in the recruitment of students work, make the benign development of vocational education.

In the United States, vocational education is not separated from general education as it is in China. Instead, it permeates the national education from middle school to college, and provides workers with multiple platforms and choices for lifelong education. China's current vocational education development is in the ascendant. In terms of concept, we can refer to some good practices of American vocational education, so that vocational education can be better guaranteed and play a greater role in the lifelong education of workers, so as to highlight the characteristics of vocational education.

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