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The Analysis of Achilleus in Iliad

2019-06-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The Analysis of Achilleus in Iliad,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了《伊利亚特》中阿基里斯。阿基里斯是《伊利亚特》一书的主要人物。有一种观点认为,阿基里斯不是一个英雄,因为他拒绝回到阿伽门农引起的战争。由于这次行动,他失去了他最好的朋友和他的乔木。在某种程度上,他太自私了。而其他人则支持阿基里斯是一个英雄,因为他为国家做出了巨大的贡献。他有强烈的情感,他有自己的行动理由。由此可见,在对阿基里斯的评价中存在着冲突。

Introduction:

Achilleus is the main character of the book Iliad. There is the argument that if Achilleus is a hero. Some people believe he is not a hero because he refuses to go back the war which is caused by Agamemnon. Due to this action, he lost his best friend and his arbor. To some extent, he is too selfish. While others support that Achilleus is a hero and he makes the great contribution for the nation. He has the strong emotion and he has his own reasons for his action. Thus it can be seen there is the conflict in the evaluations about Achilleus. The topic of this paper is that if Achilleus is a hero. My opinion is that he is a real hero. This paper aims to analyze that the hero image of Achilleus in the book Iliad.

1. The background of Achilleus

Achilleus is the main character of the book Iliad. In fact, he is the son of the sea goddess Thetis and king Peleus. Achilleus is one of the greatest heroes of all and invincible people at that time. The book Iliad spends a lot of time describing him and his behaviors. He has always been noted for his courage, appearance and physical strength (Evzonas, 2017). He has great respect for Athena and Hera. His mother was immortal, so she wanted her children to be immortal. Every time Tertis gave birth, without exception, she put the child in the fire to exam if the child is immortal, but all of them ended in failure. After the birth of Achilles, Titus still held his ankles and soaked him in the river. It makes him invulnerable except for his ankles, which were also the source of the western proverb "Achilles' heel". His mother knew that her son would die in Troy, so she send him abroad. Later, prophet Calchas told Agamemnon that only Achilles could take part in the crusade to take Troy, so Odysseus approached him as a businessman and took him to the war Troy. The book Iliad is just noted the history in the period of time of Troy. In the first half of the book Iliad, due to the angry of Achilleus, he has the conflict with Agamemnon but he refuses to comprise. There is little description of his actions in war. When he refused to come back to the war, his best friend had to take place him and fight in the war. Later, his friend was killed by Hector. Second part of this book, it has described the sense that he returned to the battlefield. He was so strong and powerful that they enemies were afraid of him.

2. The characteristics of Achilleus

Achilleus is a hero. This can be seen from his characteristics. Achilles is strong and vigorous, which is a common feature of heroes in Homer's epic. In addition, there are also distinct and complex personality characteristics of him, such as fierce and cruel, but also honor and loyalty. He is open and aboveboard, but is also brutal, narrow-minded and selfish (Finlay, 1980). In his personality characteristics, it mainly embodied all the individual-centered and personal values. Achilleus thus becomes the typical representative of the individual heroism and the individual value which is embodied in Homer's epic. He withdrew from the battlefield because of his own petulance, which had led to the defeat of the Greek army. Agamemnon took away his female prisoners, and openly despised and insulted himself at the rally. Achilles was so angry that he refused to go to war. He only pays great attention to his personal felling and ignores to look at the defeat of the Greek army on the battlefield. The personal honor, which fully reflected his personal gain and loss, leads him regardless of others' dead and living individualism. The root of Achilleus’ petulance is that his honor and personal dignity have been seriously violated. The losing of a female captive is part of the spoils of war. The capture of a female captive means that one’s honor is tarnished and not allowed to occur in the hearts of heroes who live by honor. “Let the others fight on...,” he told Patrolcross “Let all the Trojans die, and none of the Achevins survive, but you and I can be from the field of slaughter. Just you and me, we can smash their sacred towers in the tower of Troy.” (Stein, 2016). Therefore, it can be seen that Achilles' returning to the battlefield is not for the collective interests, but for the recapture of his lost honor and personal dignity, which is of course the embodiment of personal friendship and loyalty. Achilleus has the paradox in himself. He has both reason and instinct when he hand the things around him. First of all, Achilles angrily refused to enter the war because of his own spoils. However, hr also shows a bright side of love and hate in his personality, as well as the other side of his self-willed, narrow-minded, selfish and cruel (Carthy & Weil, 1965). Secondly, from Achilleus’ sadness and angry of the death of his best friend, he returned to the battlefield and turned the situation around at one stroke. Thus he has shown his great feeling about his best friend by avenging his friendship and the heroic spirit of loyalty. Once again, after killing Hector, Achilleus dragged his body behind the chariot to rush out of anger and killed twelve young noble captives to be buried with his friends, which vividly demonstrated the characteristics of Achilles’ violent and cruel. However, when the old Trojan emperor knelt to Achilles and asked for his son's body, Achilleus showed his sympathy for him. However, when the Trojans old king was kneeling at the feet of Achilleus and crying for the return of his son’s body, Achilleus was deeply moved by the pain of the losing of his son. He showed sympathy for the old king and finally returned Hector's body. In this way, Achilleus' complex personality of ferocity, cruelty and compassion is fully demonstrated in this book. And this plot also fully reflects the hero is able to face the fate and embrace the death of people. Through these three points, the reflection of Achilleus' individualism and personal value as epic heroism is highlighted.

3. The inspirit of Achilleus

He is a hero because he has the inspirit of the typical hero. He is brave. He is skillful in battle. He values the friendship. He cares about the ordinary people. He had been victorious in almost every battle, and had killed countless Trojan heroes. The comparison of the reactions of the Trojans between the Greek allied forces without him and the Greek allied forces with him shows his bravery and good fighting.  Trojans saw him from a distance, they were very terrified. He has floundered, countless trampled to death, since the phase during the Achilles war battlefield, Greece is losing because of lacking of him. The Trojan hero Hector was killed by Achilleus. Later, Achilleus rearmed himself and the Greeks gained the upper hand.

4. Honour and value for Achilleus

Honour is important for Achilleus. Honor can only be obtained through one's own choice and effort. In his mind, the honor is very important. Thus he values the prize of the war. Achilleus has shown the heroic features. That's the cause of his two indignation. Agamemnon’s capture of women was both a trophy and a symbol of honor for him. If a hero does not strive for progress, loses his valor and withdraws when the people need him, no poet will sing for him and no one will look up to him. Indeed, in his heart, the value has the close connection with honor.

5. The analysis of two indignation of Achilleus

There are two indignation of Achilleus. The indignation has enhanced the development of the whole story. The first indignation is in the book 1 and the second one is in the book 19. They are all the important key points in Iliad. In the book 1, Achilleus was angry because he thought it was unreasonable that Agamemnon has robbed his prize of war. At that time, he payed great attention to his personal feelings and his honor. In his heart, as a hero, the prize of the war means the respect and fame of himself. He just represented the public to persuade Agamemnon to release the capture. He was unexpected that Agamemnon could take away his own capture. In fact, his indignation is reasonable for himself. Achilleus thinks that Agamemnon has no right to take his war prize away. He represents the interest of the whole group to persuade Agamemnon to release the female prisoner, because he did want people to suffer from the disease. To some extent, he is the hero. He has the encourage to fight against Agamemnon who is the superior of him. However, he was very angry because he thought that his power was infringed. He is the general of the army and he values the frame and the honor a lot. For this reason, he is used to protecting his personal right (Friedrich, 2011). In fact, the root of his thinking is that he has low hierarchical and collective. He did not respect Agamemnon in his heart. Dignity and frame are so important for Achilleus that he does allow anyone to take away his prize. In fact, this is also the value of Achilleus in his heart. The second indignation is in the book 19. Achilleus decides in Book 18 to return to battle because he lost his best friend and his armor. In fact, Achilleus is not a selfish person. He has strong emotions in his heart. He values the friendships. For this reason, the death of his friend stimulus him to be angry again. At that time, he eventually realizes that he should do some things for her friend. So he returns to battle and fights for his dead friend.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Achilleus is a typical national hero. As one of the most important heroes in Homer's epic, Achilleus has the complex heroic image features of ferocity and compassion, impulsiveness and anger but also frankness and frankness. He is the hero of free individualism, which embodies his personal value. Achilleus fought for his own glory with his strength and valor. His heroic image was a representative of the heroic virtue of ancient Greece. In his heart, he embodies the hero tradition of Homer's epic which advocates honor and embodies personal value. This is the ideal of the ancient Greeks to their own state of existence, and this spiritual pursuit has f influenced so many people.

References

Carthy, M. M., & Weil, S. (1965). The iliad, or the poem of force. Chicago Review, 18(2), 5-30.

Evzonas, N. (2017). Achilles: a homeric hero enamoured with the absolute. International Journal of Psychoanalysis(2).

Friedrich, R. (2011). Odysseus and achilleus in the iliad hidden hermeneutic horror in readings of the presbeia. Hermes, 139(3), 271-290(20).

Finlay, R. (1980). Patroklos, achilleus, and peleus: fathers and sons in the "iliad". Classical World, 73(5), 267-273.

Stein, C. D. (2016). The life and death of agamemnon's scepter: the imagery of achilles (iliad 1.234–239). Classical World, 109(4), 447-463.

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