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2018-09-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- They,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了小说《他们》。《他们》是欧茨暴力作品的典型代表,小说以暴力虐待下的身体意象展现美国社会权力运作机制对个体的规训和管制,以及多重压迫下女性意识的身体表征。命运枷锁下的“他们”并没有屈从于“全景式”规训机制,而是在反抗中努力重构身体的主体性。


In oates's novel "they", the body image under the violence and abuse is used to show the discipline and control of individual by American social power operation mechanism, as well as the body representation of female consciousness under multiple oppression. The "they" in the shackles of fate did not succumb to the "panoramic" discipline mechanism, but tried to reconstruct the body's subjectivity in resistance. We can interpret the historical construction and cultural cognition contained in the body through the novel text and discourse, and interpret the social representation, production and metaphor of the body.

In the history of western thought, the study and exposition of the body has gone through the dualistic dualism of Plato and Descartes, the integrative theory of Nietzsche, and foucault's combination of the body study with the study of sociology and anthropology to complete the "body turn" of all walks of life in western society. Foucault in "madness and civilization", "the order of things", "the imprisonment and punishment" and in the history of "sex" and other works, this paper discusses the relationship between body and power, the body is no longer a flesh and blood in medical research, but all kinds of power, mechanism to realize objective media, political, social, cultural, the purpose of the human body "directly involved in some kind of politics; The power relationship controls it directly, intervenes in it, marks it, trains it, tortures it, forces it to perform certain tasks, perform certain rituals, and send certain signals. The importance of the body is reflected in the various social control mechanisms, micro-powers and disciplinary institutions that regulate and control people through the body's action on them ". Foucault's research has promoted the metaphorization of the concept of the body, broken the traditional academic boundaries of the body, so that the body is no longer just an objective object of medical research, but a carrier that can be written and narrated, observing, recording and analyzing human history, society, politics and culture. In the study of the body, the turn of language and psychological analysis is reflected, the body becomes speech action or speech, and the body of "discovery" or "construction" is replaced by the body of "performance".

Joyce carol oates because its transform variety of writing techniques and the performance of the personality is distinct perspective was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature, the prolific writer condensed the turmoil of all aspects of American society in his works, the clever use of stream of consciousness, psychological analysis and internal monologue realism to show modern anxiety and helplessness in the cruel reality, a pursuit of ideal belief, morality, by violence, violence, death, heavy hammer broken, violent conflicts between the characters and the reality of writing natural and suddenly there, at the same time bring readers a kind of "across a minefield of emotion" reading experience, Readers "are often shocked by the multiple explosions."

"They," a classic representation of oates's violent work, was reviewed as "a sepulchral gothic room full of blood, fire, insanity, chaos, greed, corruption and various deaths". "They" in "their" body suffered from violence, disease, blood rain forest, no room, this kind of attack and torture and "they" is closely related to the social environment, all kinds of power mechanism is the result of the discipline of the body, the tragic fate of the "they" in "their" power relations and social interaction between the hegemony of the micro mechanism of power function. The interpretation of "they" from the perspective of body politics, "they" is a gunbattle of "they" being disciplined, self-disciplined and anti-disciplined in the turbulent social background.

"They" is a novel filled with violence, absurdity and disease in every corner, and the violent scenes with bloody smells and sudden plot twists give readers an unusual reading experience. The novel begins with the seemingly peaceful description of Loretta who falls in love, but is undermined by Loretta's uneasiness. "her heart leaps up", and then her lover Bernie who takes home is shot by her brother. The numerous descriptions of dead bodies and blood in the novel confirm the uneasiness of the readers and Loretta. More bizarre scene in Loretta slouches at will the police after Howard as a savior to take home, Howard captured Loretta in front of a dead body, in exchange for juwan Howard help Loretta out, this fantastic, dirty, blood rain forest story start all fantasy back to the grim reality, power and body race kicked off. As foucault said, power is pervasive and ubiquitous in daily life. All interpersonal relationships are power relationships, which are interpreted by foucault as a power relationship. Violence, as an accompaniment of power, becomes the way people get along with each other in power relationships. Various social control mechanisms, micro-powers and discipline agencies act on people through violence, the body of the discipline, and the controlled object also fights back in some form of violence. This kind of discipline and struggles against the violence between the reflected especially in the novel the hero of Jules, adolescent Jules very abhor myself broken and full of quarrel, he sees his father Howard as to blame for all this, is a father's can bring complaints from the mother's day, make yourself whether on money or social status is inferior, even lose the right to pursue love and freedom. His father, the ruler of the family space, controlled Jules's pursuit of freedom. Jules, who was disciplined by power, could only do silent resistance through his thoughts. More than once, he fantasized about "splitting his father's skull in two", so that he could break through the prison and travel around the world according to the map. When he learned of his father's death, Jules, though extremely disgusted with his father, remained sad. Jules tried to suppress the sadness by disguising a cold and indifferent expression. At least the children have said that they saw human bodies floating to sleep and then disappearing into thin air.. Dead people, drowning people, they are so calm, so patient... Jules felt these dark, mysterious people who looked like human corpses moving through the air. These sepulchral descriptions are Jules's spiritually repressed physical manifestations, the living as distorted as the dead, deprived of soul, silently subjected to the discipline of the social power mechanism upon the body.

In discipline and punishment, foucault discusses the complete process of power operation. At the beginning of power operation, the fixed closed space is divided and the object of power implementation is the body of the individual, and then the game between the power and the individual is observed and recorded. In this process, space plays an important role, becoming the medium connecting certain power and its implementation object, and also becoming the physical foundation and real place of power hiding. We extend this kind of power to the object through the "discipline mechanism" which indirectly ACTS on the object through space. What we see before us is the urban space which is closely related to each individual and even the whole society. The story of "their" space is set in oates called "the city of homicide, the romantic city of Detroit, tells the story from 1937 to 1967 between urban underclass people's living state in the United States, by Wendell a poor unbearable, fragmented life situation as the main line about the upper society he how the city of proletarians in the tenacity of the will to fight and miserable fate. Although suffering from the double whammy of social injustice and violence, "they" still relentlessly depict the comfortable life and bright future in the midst of poverty and illness. Even though they are battered by the cruel reality, the "American dream" still guides them to forge ahead. Airtight urban space with a stay indifferent attitude to observe, record the power mechanism of "their" physical and mental discipline, while the violence is a writer in the urban space to write "their" s fate and unremitting pursuit of a powerful tool, violence is the end of the old mechanism, also is the beginning of the new system, new dawn violence destroyed the dream but also bodes, Jules's life is just such a accompanied by violent ups and downs of life. Jules was born in the city, and because his father lost his job, the family moved away from the hustle and bustle of the city. "Every person who comes out of the womb has to be a person -- just a person -- and the body of the individual, the private, the nameless self, can neither be broken nor escape from it." With this seemingly tragic fate equality theory and blind yearning for city life, Loretta after husband Howard go off to war to choose to leave the country, to return to the mixed with love/hate urban space, opens the Jules bumpy dream trip, the family also thoroughly become the slave of money in the city space bars, lose myself. "Life in Detroit was harsh, brutal and frightening to the Wendell family, so Jules shouted and burned the city down." At every turning point in Jules's life, violence serves as the hammer that breaks the dream. It awakens the ethereal souls in the air, and makes Jules' mirage fantasy space overlaps with the real space, reflecting the lifeless body under the discipline of power mechanism in urban space. Although Jules was born poor, and the external environment and unrest, but he has remained indomitable struggle will and devout hope for a better life, so when he encounters eccentric but generous Bernard, I believe what he said about Bernard, he believes that "this is a turning point in your life, is the beginning of his life", Bernard could make his life "on top". When he captures with every corner to meet him, after all, go to the airport to leave Detroit to achieve, quirky, bloody violence, twisted scene appeared, "he lay face down in the open bathroom door, throat was cut, the blood flow of everywhere, stuck to Bernard's cheeks, forehead, even his round open eyes have a also stick on the blood, eyelash stained with blood clot". At this point Bernard disappeared from the life of Jules, just like a small black point in Jules' life track, which was then invented, and Jules fell back into a long and monotonous life. But Jules, whom oates likens to a weed growing through a crack, could not be silenced. The vigorous weed fell hopelessly in love with Bernard's niece, Nadine, regardless of the chasm between them. Jules' psychological space extends endlessly in the urban space, and he pursues love belonging to the upper space undaunted.

Jules's story is about spiritual endeavor -- how to fight for freedom. How to break away from depression, to be perfect -- it may be piecemeal, but it is perfect anyway; As well as these aspects of Jules's struggle as an American youth, Jules may find it worth documenting. The entire city of Detroit is a farce, and many of Detroit's lives are destined to be drama-free. Yet Jules's fate would fall, again and again, into a monstrous madness that would consume his body and destroy his spirit, but it was logical.

Jules this state of madness, crazy finally broken by a shot of na denier, Jules once again by the violence of hammer heavily from a peak of fantasy and pleasure to knock back to become desolate lonely reality space, dominates the abstract space power mechanism with the attitude of a winner again looked at Jules was floundering around in the city swamp, mercilessly mocked the spirit near-collapse Jules.

The body, as the physical medium to fight against the power mechanism, has become the meaning of macro and micro power, containing historical and cultural symbols and political construction. The study of the body has become a subject of increasing concern in the field of literature. Literary critics are increasingly concerned with the role of the body in the evolution of social civilization and the countless ties between the body and social politics. In literary works, the body becomes a story or text that can be interpreted, and the analysis of the hero's body political consciousness in the novel can effectively reveal the character's living state and growth process. The individual talks and interacts with the social and historical context through the dynamic and generative body, and finally breaks the fetters of fate by violence, frees the body under discipline, and completes the reconstruction of subjectivity. Power relations also exists in sex, the male power discipline forces women gradual loss of the female body is self-consciousness, the power mechanism under the action of discipline and self discipline has experienced the lack of subject consciousness, awareness and reconstruction, body political consciousness awakening allows women to tragic fate in the face, have the courage to resist, break through the shackles of fate.


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