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Model essay for diabetes in Hawaii

2020-06-10 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Model essay for diabetes in Hawaii,文章讲述糖尿病是现代社会中全世界非常常见的疾病。有关该病的材料不胜枚举,包括小册子,书籍,讲座,传单网站等,它们都在试图弄清糖尿病的体征和症状,并发症,研究和治疗方法。临床上,糖尿病通常根据病因分为两种类型。 1型糖尿病主要由于未出生的胰岛素的分泌而发生在青少年中。胰岛素是胰腺产生的一种特殊蛋白质,是维持人体血糖水平的关键因素。患有1型糖尿病的年轻人必须依靠外部胰岛素供应进行治疗,因为他们的身体失去了产生和分泌这种特定蛋白质的能力。 2型糖尿病,也称为非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病(简称NIDDM)或成年糖尿病,定义为机体抵抗胰岛素的代谢性疾病。还有其他类型的糖尿病,例如妊娠糖尿病。 2型糖尿病患者通常有明确的家族史,主要是由B细胞功能缺陷引起的。

 

Model essay for diabetes in Hawaii

 

Diabetes is a very common disease worldwide in modern society. There’re overwhelm materials on this disease, including brochures, books, lectures, leaflets websites and many others, are trying to figure out signs and symptoms, complication, researches and therapy of diabetes. Clinically, diabetes generally is divided into two types according to etiology. Diabetes mellitus type 1 mainly occurs in teenagers due to lack of secretion of insulin inborn. Insulin is a specific protein produced by pancreas and a crucial player in maintaining blood sugar lever in human body. The young with Diabetes mellitus type 1 have to rely on external insulin supply for therapy as their body lost the capacity of producing and secreting this specific protein. Diabetes mellitus type 2, also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM for short) or adult-onset diabetes, is defined as metabolic disease that the body resist insulin. There’re also other types diabetes mellitus like gestation diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes often have a clear family history and mostly results from B cell functional deficiency.  According to a new research, diabetes is a growing epidemic in the United States with significant racial and ethnic health disparities among minorities. In Haiwii, diabetes ranks as the fifth leading cause of death, higher than the national average (Tan C, 2014). Among all the cases, type 2 diabetes takes up the majority.

For the amount of insulin in blood makes a difference in metabolic system, how our body adjusts the production of it has been explored and mechanism clearly stated in books. There’re certain hormones either to stimulate insulin production or to resist it Pancreas is the primary organ that produce hormone to regulate the blood glucose level. It’s not only an endocrine organ but also belongs to digestive system. Pancreas consists of two major types of secretary tissues which present different function. The exocrine gland secretes digestive juice that helps protein digestion. It localizes in the acinar cells. The endocrine gland releases hormone and localized in the islet cells. There’re about 1 million islets in pancreas, which dominates as the control centers for blood glucose: insulin from beta cells and glucagon from alpha cells. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and glucagon glucose release. Here is the feedback loop   of how these two hormone work: a rise in blood glucose causes release of insulin from beta cells the pancreas, promoting glucose uptake in cells and storage as glycogen in the liver. While a fall in blood glucose stimulates alpha cells in the pancreas to secrete glucagon, which causes the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose. Insulin is a hormone, produced by the pancreas, which is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. It causes cells in the liver, muscle and fat tissue to consume glucose from the blood storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. In short, insulin transfers the blood sugar and stores it in liver and muscle, so that the glucose level would not be too high and is maintained at a certain level. When the amount or the functioning of insulin breakdown, blood sugar would go high and results in diabetes.

Many people are suffering from diabetes. The influence of diabetes is systemic and pancreas is also involved and results in hypertrophy, fibrosis, denaturationor even cancers (Xu CX, 2014). There are high possibilities for diabetes to bring complications and patients with diabetes often end up in serious outcomes as coronary heart disease, stroke or peripheral angiopathy. DM also affects peripheral nerves, mostly cranial nerve. Change of pupils, abnormal sweating, cardiovascular pathology, sympathetic nervous dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction is early symptoms of sympathetic nervous damage. The eyes of patients with long term diabetes are serious affected. The incidence of eye disease led by diabetes increases as the years go by. Retina is commonly involved structure in this case. The pathology lies in structural and functional destruction of microvascular in this area by high level blood glucose. What’s worse, the artery that supplies retina is the terminal that easily affected by lack of blood flow and abnormal blood composition. Once the wall of the vessel is damage and bleed, scar might formulate on the retina. All these probably lead to serious symptoms like vision loss or blindness and eventually increase the chance of having glaucoma, cataracts, and other irreversible eye problems. (Batenburg, 2014).

BMI is a reliable figure that introduced to evaluate heath status roughly by comparing body weight and height. It gives a direct impression of physical condition and is popular in heath institutes. BMI valued 18.5 to 24.9 is considered normal according to WHO standard and there may be slight difference between two genders. BMI less than 18.5 is considered underweight and 25 to 30 overweight. If the figure excels 30, one is categorized obesity. There’s further detailed scale in obesity categories. Patients with diabetes have to follow a strict diet to control calories intake for risk management (Perreault L, 2014). An example of a proposed 1500 calories daily menu is attached at the end of this article. It should be noted that the intake of vitamins and minerals, like vitamin A and calcium, must be taken into consideration when designing the menu. Therefore at the same time we guarantee the minimum amount of calories intake, more low fat and sugar substance should be added, vegetables for example.

With such high prevalence of diabetes in Hawaii as well as the world, and the troublesome and sufferings it brings to individuals, there’re many professional advice for preventing diabetes. On top of the advice is body weight control. Potential diabetes victim should avoid being obese. Suggestion includes exercises and low fat diet with appropriate composition of carbohydrates, fat and microelements. Other frequently mentioned tips as limited intake of sugar, salt, alcohol and smoking are also of great significance. To people suffering high possibility of disease incidence, especially those with evident family history, overweight or hypertension, blood glucose should be monitored regularly.

Generally, course about health management in UH system would be good to work in this field for sure. From my perspective, however, is not the course or program that really matters. The most important thing is the efforts that should be spared to prevent or cure this diabetes.  Even those students studying art or music can help if they realize the pain diabetes bring to its victims and enormous economic loss it cost the society.

 

Menu:

Breakfast:

1 cup Oatmeal Squares by Quaker

4 oz. skim milk (nonfat)

4 oz. orange juice

½ cup blueberries

Midmorning snack:

8 TLC Crackers – Kashi Original Whole Grain

2 pieces mini Babybel light cheese

Lunch:

2 slices Flax & Fiber bread by Arnold

1 tbsp. peanut butter – natural creamy

1 tbsp. Low sugar jam or preserve by Smuckers

1 medium apple

8 carrot sticks

Water, unsweetened tea or coffee, or diet soda

Afternoon snack:

Your choice of a 75-calorie snack

Supper:

Make a large salad

1-3 cups spinach leaves with salad greens

½ chopped ripe red tomatoes

½ cup drained and rinsed chickpeas (garbanzo beans)

½ cup low fat 1% cottage cheese

½ tbsp. salad dressing light Ranch

1 SMALL oatmeal muffin (150 calories or less)

Water, unsweetened tea or coffee, or diet soda

½ cup light vanilla ice cream

Reference:

1. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2014 Jun;73(6):168-71. A Descriptive Study of Marshallese and Chuukese Patients with Diabetes in Hawai'i.

Tan CHaumea SJuarez DTGrimm C.

 

2. Batenburg WWVerma AWang Y, et al.  Combined Renin Inhibition/(Pro)Renin Receptor Blockade in Diabetic Retinopathy- A Study in Transgenic (mREN2)27 Rats. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 26;9(6): e100954. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100954. eCollection 2014.

 

3. Xu CXZhu HHZhu YM. Diabetes and cancer: Associations, mechanisms, and implications for medical practice. World J Diabetes. 2014 Jun 15;5(3):372-80. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i3.372.

 

4. Perreault LTemprosa MMather KJ, et al.Regression From Prediabetes to Normal Glucose Regulation Is Associated With Reduction in Cardiovascular Risk: Results From the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Diabetes Care. 2014 Jun 26. pii: DC_140656. [Epub ahead of print]

 

5. http://www.womenandweight.com/reviews/diets/1500-calorie-diet-sample-menu/

 

 

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