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What is genetic engineering?

2020-06-04 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- What is genetic engineering,在本文中,我首先要给出基因工程的定义。然后,还将介绍有助于基因工程的学科。人类创造的每一项技术都是为人民服务的。因此,我想介绍一些基因工程在当前和历史上的应用实例,以及基因工程的类型。同时,我还将提供一些基因工程潜在进展的实例。最后,基因工程对我们和整个世界的影响将得出结论。

What is genetic engineering

In this paper, I would like to give a definition of genetic engineering firstly. And then, the disciplines that contribute to the genetic engineering will be introduced, too. Each technology that human created is to serve the people. So, I would like to introduce some examples of the applications of genetic engineering currently and historically, as well as the types of genetic engineering .And I will provide some examples of potential advances in genetic engineering. Lastly, the effects of genetic engineering have on us and the whole world will be concluded.

Genetic Engineering

What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering, also called the genetic modification, is to manipulate an organism’s genome by using biotechnology. By synthesizing the DNA and then inserting it into the host organism, or insert new DNA in the host organism by first isolation and copying the genetic material of interest, the genes may be removed. Or they will just be knocked out[1]. And the IUPAC also define genetic engineering as Process of inserting new genetic information into existing cells in order to modify a specific organism for the purpose of changing its characteristics[2].

Disciplines That Contributes To Genetic Engineering

The modern genetic engineering includes many different disciplines such as molecularbiology, biochemistry, genetics, cellbiology, embryology, immunology, organic chemistry physical chemistry, physical, information science, computer science. It’s common that a new technology can contain so many disciplines, cause


that all most no technology is independent. With the development of the researches of other disciplines, the genetic engineering developed so quickly .And also it is technology which is related to materials like DNA, RNA, chromosome, genome, heredity, mutation and so on.

Historic and current applications of transgenic biotechnology

Looking back the history of genetic engineering, we maybe surprised that this kind of technology firstly developed in agrarian age. Back in the ancient time, our ancestors began to use this kind of technology to select seeds. And it is the pioneer of  transgenic biotechnology. The farmers select and bred the best suited crops which have the highest yields to produce more food to feed the growing population. As crops became difficult to maintain, people discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize. And the farmers are clover enough to breed one plant to other plants. For example, the Chinese people altered the genetics of their apple tree by  breeding them with other plants such as the plum trees, which was one of the first forms of  transgenic biotechnology.

However, It was in 1970s that humans began the direct manipulation of DNA out side breeding and mutations. In 1951,Jack Williamson first coined the term Genetic Engineering in his science fiction novel called Dragon's Island. In 1972 Paul Berg combined DNA from monkey virus SV40 with that of the lambda virus, and so, he created the first recombinant DNA. In 1974,Rudolf Jaenisch created the first transgenic animal by introducing foreign DNA its embryo[3]. The first genetic engineering company was founded by Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson ,which is


called Genentech. And a year later, the company produced a human protein. In 1995,after having been approved by the FDA, Bt Potato was approved by Environment Protection Agency. And another thing to say is that in 2009,transgenic crops grown in 25countries such an China, Brazil, India and Canada. In 2010,It was announced that the scientists had created the first synthetic genome, which was added to a cell that contained no DNA. Now, the scientists are making efforts to do more experiments to achieve more.[4]

Types Of Genetic Engineering

 Genetic engineering is used mainly in four areas, including health care, crops and agriculture, environmental uses and the non food uses of crops and other products. And the health care and agriculture are closely linked to our daily life.

Health Care, The Medicine

Modern Genetic engineering applied in medicine care is mainly in areas such as pharmaceutical drug, genetic screening and pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics is the combination of pharmacology and genomics, and it analyses the effect a genetic makeup has on an individual’s response to drugs by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drug's efficacy or toxicity. And modern  genetic engineering contributes a lot to the manufacturing of traditional small molecule pharmaceutics drugs. And it also makes it available to manufacture existing medicines cheaply and easily. To cite an example, diabetes was thought as a incurable disease, because insulin was hard to produce and so, it’s relatively expensive. However, In 1978,when Genentech firstly developed a synthetic humanized insulin,


things changed to be different. He joined the gene of the insulin with a plasmid vector and inserted the new gene into the bacterium Escherichia coli. In this way, he achieved the manufacture of insulin and makes it easier and cheaper to cure diabetes.

Genetic testing is also popular. It is mainly used in testing vulnerabilities in inherited diseases and it can also be used in determine a child’s parentage. And it is normal for a couple in China to have a physical examination to assure that their chromosomes are normal and it can reduce the risk for them to have an abnormal child.

Agriculture

 Genetic engineering is widely used in agriculture. And the most widely used technology is the transgenic technology, which is to modify the genes of crops. In 1994,when Calgene first marketed its delayed ripening tomato called Flavr Savr, the commercial of genetically modified foods began. And now, this kind of technology has been used in the manufacture of soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil to improve the outputs. To cite another example, the Chinese scientist Yuan Longping is called “The Father of Hybrid Rice” by the Chinese Media, for that he developed the first hybrid rice varieties in 1970s.And in 1979,his technique for hybrid rice was introduced to America, which is memorable in history. In 1991,the statistics of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that 20 percent of the world’s rice output came from the world’s 10 percent fields that grow hybrid rice. And later, Africa also began to plant hybrid rice. Hybrid rice is a great contribution that China has to the whole world. Genetically modified foods are widely adopted among farmers, for that GM crops are always highly productive. In 2011,11 different kinds of


transgenic crops were grown on 395 million acres in 29 countries such as the USA, China, Mexico, Austria, South Africa and so on.

 Genetic Engineering Applied In Industrial

Industrial genetic engineering is the industrial that applies genetic engineering ,including the industrial fermentation. It includes the practice of using cells to generate industrially useful products. Genetic engineering is to provide people with a better life, so, it mainly uses raw materials that are renewable and it may contribute to lowering greenhouse gas[5].

Potential Advances In Genetic Engineering

As I have described, genetic engineering is mainly used in health care, agriculture and industrial. However, only genetic engineering usage in health care is wide. There are a lot of aspects for us to explore. It is to say, there are potential advances in genetic engineering.

1.Hybrid crops and vegetables

At present, we have already did experiments on hybrid crops to make a higher output. However, can you imagine that we can use the hybrid technology to produce a tomato which tests like cucumber, or a potato which is on a potato tree? It’s a long way to achieve, but it’s possible.

2.Bacterium to cure the AIDs

HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. And many people in Africa suffer from HIV, and it is inherited. In the future, maybe we can cure AIDs


with the help of genetic engineering.

3.Create a new organ using a stem cell

Stem cells have already been used to cure leukemia. However, what if we can create a new organ to cure our organic diseases? With the help of transgenic biotechnology, we can change our lungs or other organs to a fresh one to help us live longer. But it may be dreams .Because in this way, human may never die, and it’s against the natural rules.

Comments on the effects of transgenic biotechnology

 Genetic engineering is related to our daily life. We eat genetically modified food and we take medicine which may be produced with the help of genetic engineering .On the one hand, we benefit a lot from it. However, one the other hand, we don’t know what genetic engineering would bring to us. It’s natural for man to draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages. We use genetic engineering to improve the outputs of agriculture and industrial and other aspects of our life. Maybe one day, there would be genetic engineering, which may ruin the world. So, Regulation is important.

 

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