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To decide war: the road to peace in Roman civilization

2020-05-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-To decide war: the road to peace in Roman civilization。本文讲述为了研究古罗马社会在战争中的生存方式,本文从宏观角度探讨了“和平是否能源于战争,人们是否准备好摆脱权力冲突”的问题,请参考《里维历史》一书和二书。罗马书》和《埃涅伊德》第二,七,十一书,并在微观范围内,讨论了《埃涅瓦德和卡图卢斯的第二,七,十一世纪能否在生与死的压力下保持心灵的平静》的问题。根据利维(Livy)的《罗马历史》和《埃涅德史》(Aeneid)的III,利维(Livy)和维吉尔(Vigil)同意人们不一定要与权力斗争生活。关于埃尼德和卡图卢斯揭示了在可怕威胁中人们实现内心和平的能力。

在罗马的最初故事中,特洛伊人为和平而战,而不是为战争本身而战。这些四处游荡的无家可归者陷入了一场毫无意义的战争,他们不想打架。 “‘和平与伟大的帕拉斯的鬃毛一起居住!’埃涅阿斯没有再说,但他只是哀悼道。” (Aen 11.94-98)他尽力不惹麻烦,因为他解释说:“在无理的争吵中涉及到您的国家……战争爆发后,谁在寻求您的友谊!” (Aen.11.113-115

 

To decide war: the road to peace in Roman civilization

 

To investigate how ancient Roman society lived with the war, in a macro scope, this paper exams question “can peace ever come from war, and are people ever ready to be free of conflict for power” with reference to book I& II of Livy's History of Rome and book II, VII, XI of the Aeneid, and in a micro scope, discusses question “can peace of mind be preserved under pressures of life and death” with reference to book II, VII, XI of the Aeneid and Catullus. According to I& II of Livy's History of Rome and the Aeneid, Livy and Vigil agree that it is not necessarily that people live with power struggles. About achievability of inner peace of people in dreadful threat, it is revealed in the Aeneid and Catullus.  

In Rome’s very first stories, the Trojans fight for peace but not for war itself. These homeless, who roams around, is stuck in a meaningless war that they don’t want to fight. “‘Peace with the manes of great Pallas dwell!’ Aeneas said no more, but, inly thro’ he mourned.” (Aen 11.94-98) He tries not to stir trouble, as he explains “in causeless quarrels has involved your state…who sought your friendship ere the war began!” (Aen. 11.113-115)

Even from the counterpart, people argue against the meaning of the war. “Maids, matrons, widows, mix their common moans; Orphans their sires, and sires lament their sons. All in that universal sorrow share, and curse the cause of this unhappy war.” (Aen. 11.208-211) They also seek to cease fighting. “If wished success our labor shall attend, think peace concluded, and the king your friend… And seek alliance in some other land”.Aen 11.123-126At the end, both side “have felt enough to wish the peace: a land exhausted to the last remains, depopulated towns, and driven plains.” Aen. 11.358-360

However, in another version of story it is said that the Trojans finally settle due to the hospitality of Latinus who “was so struck with the noble bearing of the men and their leader that he gave his right hand as a solemn pledge of friendship for the future.” (Livy 1.1) 

As Rome emerged and expanded, war was fueled inside the state as the Sabine women were raped, but later the end of this conflict “was not only peace that was mad, the two nations were united into one State.” (Livy 1.13) Consequently, Livy justifies the war, saying “it was, in fact, through the strength given by him that the City was powerful enough to enjoy an assured peace for forty years after his departure.” Livy 1.17

The maintenance of a great country needs both iron wrist and soft hand. Therefore in Rome there are certain people “universally admitted to be first in the conduct of war and the arts of peace.” (Livy 2.16) With “foreigners”, the Latin, later Rome turned a new page, “at no previous period had the Latin nation been friendlier with the Roman government.” (Livy 2.22) In an emergency circumstance, Roman senates feel “the mobs were in great danger of their lives”, deciding “Open violence would have been resorted to,” by which decrease the domestic hostility. (Livy 2.23) Exercising this new term, the senate arrests Appius, partly from his innate love of tyranny, giving the harshest sentences.” (Livy 2.27) In general, it can be seen that the purpose of war is to maintain Rome itself rather than purely war-seeking behavior.

Regarding the mental state of the Romans, during the whole journey under pressures of life and death, Aeneas in the Aeneid remains sometimes delighted for natural joy: “To tuneful songs their narrow throats applied. The captain gives command; the joyful train.”Aen 7.33-35And when the Trojan land and find the prophesy come true. “Then every brow with cheerful green is crowned. The feasts are doubled, and the bowls go round.” (Aen 7.144-147) From a micro scope, Catullus depicts pictures of Roman citizens’ lives.

During the period of Ceasar, though tension of war still takes place, a tendency of pursuing spiritual aesthetic development emerged in its literature. Rather than traditional poet extolling military forces, he writes to express love for his family. Expressing the excitement of returning home, he sets down: “We rest in the bed we longed for? This one moment worth’s all the labor.” (Catullus 31.10) Remembering his childhood, he recalls “At that time when the first white toga was handed me, when my youth passed in flower through happy spring, I played more than enough.” (Cat 68b.15-18)

He also wrote for his lovers and friends. To his friend Veranius, he writes “Veranius, first to me of all…You.re back. O happy news for me!” (Catullus 9.1-5) Concerning his beloved companion, he asks his friend “if you.ve ever had a desire in your mind you’ve pursued chastely and purely, keep this boy of mine modestly safe.” (Catullus 15.3-5) He illustrates the days with his love’s companion as “It’s on you and no other I seek to lavish riches: besides I’d offer whatever riches I had.” (Cat 68b.159-160) 

The most peaceful and innovative ideas embedded are his love for life. He writes for the passion of pure love“their mutual spirits love and are loved. Septimius sets his little Acme, above the Syrians or Britons”—which shows a clear idea of choosing lover over the honor from warfare.(Cat 45.20-22) He respects a simple life of people. “Cease to beg for hundred sestertia, you always ask for: sufficiency is riches.” (Cat 23.15)

Citizens are the fabric of a society. From time sequence and extract of certain poet, this paper probe into Roman citizens’ view of war and their life, which proves that, in general, Rome civilization develops as it fight against others but the reason why it is long lasting as a nation is its human spirit and cultural treasure.  

 

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