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Aristotle's concept of justice

2019-11-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Aristotle's concept of justice,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了亚里士多德的公正观。在《尼各马可伦理学》中,亚里士多德认为行为经过立法者规定即为合法的,而公正即平等则是公正的另一层含义。亚里士多德认为不平等是违法的,但并非所有违法都是不平等的,即违法存在于不平等之中,同样的,合法则存在于平等之中。亚里士多德说的平等是一个综合性的绝对平均主义思想,在他看来城邦各阶级本身是不平等的,如果绝对的平均主义,那么不公平就是必然的事。

The realization of socialist society is not only the highly developed material civilization, but also the more important thing is to ensure that all members of the society can enjoy the social fruits fairly. As China enters a new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the biggest feature of social problems is unbalanced and inadequate development in all aspects, which is actually a matter of justice. The most comprehensive account of justice is that of Aristotle. A correct understanding of Aristotle's concept of justice is of profound theoretical significance to the construction of socialist core values and provides methodological guidance for solving the problem of people's interests in the process of realizing the Chinese dream.

With the development of social productivity, social products gradually increase and relatively appear surplus products. How to distribute these surplus products has become an era problem that people are trying to solve. The establishment of a certain mode of production and exchange inevitably requires the establishment of a corresponding mode of distribution. The nature of the mode of production determines the nature of the mode of distribution. In the slavery period, the landlord class was dominant, and the distribution of social products was of obvious class nature. When Aristotle lived in Athens, ancient Greece was in decline, people's pursuit of material benefits was increasingly strong, and the moral problem fell into a deep crisis. Justice is on the agenda.

"In human history, the emergence of any thinker is caused by the environment of the era he lived in, with a very profound historical background, which is the law of the development of human intellectual history. Thought is the embodiment of the spirit of The Times and the requirement of the development of the productive forces. If we want to understand a person's thought and his meaning correctly, we must understand the background of The Times he lived in. Aristotle's concept of justice did not appear out of thin air. The life, city-state, political system of ancient greeks and the thoughts of their predecessors all influenced the generation and development of Aristotle's concept of justice.

Aristotle living in an age of decline in ancient Greece, both inside and outside war makes Athens fell gradually, the orderly political life was destroyed, the superior always live in the political and social citizens of Athens, is a kind of spirit, they are losing confidence in the noble moral life, no longer pursue a life of virtue, to the pursuit of wealth and official positions. For such a society, citizens can no longer experience happiness by participating in political life, and the power of a powerful city-state is not military or economic, but the shaping of the spiritual level of city-state citizens. Aristotle thought about ethics in this context, and nicomachean ethics is an important work on this subject.

Aristotle's definition of justice in the nicomachean ethics is: "we call those who break the law and those who are greedy and those who are unequal unjust; So, obviously, we call law-abiding and fair people just; So just is law-abiding and equal, and unjust is illegal and unequal." Justice has two meanings: first, justice is legal; Second, justice means equality. Justice is legality, that is, all lawful ACTS are just, and just ACTS make citizens equal. Aristotle thinks that an act is lawful after being prescribed by the legislator, and justice is equal, which is another meaning of justice. Aristotle thinks that inequality is illegal, but not all illegal things are unequal, that is, illegal things exist in inequality, as well as legal things exist in equality. Aristotle's "equality" is a comprehensive idea of absolute equalitarianism. In his view, all classes in the city-state are unequal. If absolute equalitarianism, then injustice is inevitable.

Aristotle divided justice into two spheres: distribution and communication. Distribution is the distribution of wealth, honor and other things, all of which are enjoyed by legitimate citizens. In this distribution there is fairness and unfairness, and justice requires fairness. Communication is divided into voluntary communication and involuntary communication. In communication, there are legal and illegal. Justice requires legality. Justice, as an integral virtue, is the middle way between excess and inequity for others and oneself. The basic rules of the middle way are legal and fair. Distributive justice is a very important point of Aristotle, he called distributive justice is equal justice, distributive justice is the special component of justice. Correction and justice is the middle way between the benefits of one party and the losses of the other party. It is fair in the process of private transactions. Rectified justice is related to law enforcement. It is a way to solve the injustice and a way to deal with the destruction of "justice is legality". In Aristotle's view, distributive justice is based on inequality and justice is based on equality. Correction justice emphasizes the principle of equality and equal treatment. Justice in return is a kind of active justice, which is completed by both parties.

For Aristotle, reward and justice are distinct, and reward justice is at best a category of partial justice. People usually pursue evil for evil, but there is no denying that people also pursue good for good. Transactions cannot happen without people's pursuit of good in return for good, and in the end, the relationship between people is inseparable because of transactions. Money is the most important "product" of justice in return, which often happens in transactions. Return just the essence of which is the fair exchange, it is in the private business buyers and sellers in the market, the voluntary deal, buyers and sellers through exchange be "equal", having equal status, so as to realize the exchange relationship of fair, fair exchange or return justice, in the process of exchange, the reciprocal exchange relationship always runs through the whole process of the exchange, has a normative and ethical.

Aristotle's thought came into being when slavery was prevailing. It was based on the noble morality under slavery and had its historical limitation. Justice is not equal to justice, but equality is equal to justice only in some cases. Aristotle's concept of justice is conservative and innovative, and the limitation and transcendence coexist.

There is a contradiction between Aristotelian principle of justice that values virtue over equality. Aristotle's justice thought as the city life and the ultimate purpose of all academic research, don't know the mode of production is the motive force of social development, we should from the consideration of social productivity, and should not use the so-called "good" concept to shape, he too much attention to the importance of ideas, and tried to save the city with morality.

Aristotle is a great and erudite philosopher in the west. He reflected on the major issues prominent in the society at that time from the perspective of philosophy and expounded his own neo-confucianism thoughts. Aristotle's argument of justice and justice is still regarded as a classic discussion in academic circles. Justice is the highest principle running through all virtues. Individual morality should rely on it and social morality should rely on it. Aristotle's greatest contribution to the concept of justice is to set out from real life, put forward problems and solve problems, and put forward his own solutions in reality, so that the concept of justice into reality, Aristotle made an important and very detailed classification of justice in reality. He distinguished between what he called "natural justice" and what he called "agreed justice," in other words, social relations and norms of behavior, which are almost all made in heaven. Society's morality and justice, most of it by habit. This thought has become the forerunner of today's academic circles to distinguish moral life from society and to talk about nature and reductionism respectively. According to intend to differentiate, Aristotle's justice, and further analyzes the distribution of corrective justice, return the justice, political justice, the justice thought from the perspective of economic life, eventually return to politics, to rise to the superstructure form, for the city life provides the principles of life, and city life provides methodology guidance for people. These developments have since become the basis for the establishment of economics, jurisprudence and political science, as well as Aristotle's great achievements and contributions in philosophy, ethics and other disciplines. It lays the foundation for social progress and the benefits of all. Aristotle's thought of justice enlightened the modern bourgeois enlightenment thinkers and profoundly influenced the construction of the modern capitalist political system.

Aristotle's thought of justice is of great significance to China's social and economic construction, distribution system reform and supply-side structural reform. In the process of social distribution, we should not only pay attention to efficiency, but also pay more attention to fairness in the primary distribution and redistribution. We should correctly understand and handle the dialectical relationship between efficiency and fairness, expand the proportion of the middle class, and narrow the income gap.

We will combine the rule of law with the rule of virtue. The construction of harmonious society should not only attach importance to the dimension of system, but also ignore the dimension of virtue. We should correctly deal with the relationship between individual virtue and institutional virtue and strengthen the education of socialist core values.

Aristotle believed that the merits and disadvantages of city-state regime determined the rationality of its existence to a large extent. According to this theory, we know that to make contemporary government just, the goal must be to pursue the maximization of national interests and the highest good. At present, China is still in the primary stage of socialism with no changes in its national conditions, and the development of productive forces is not sufficient to fully meet the demand for a better life. Therefore, we must adhere to the all-round socialist reform. Only by vigorously developing the productive forces can the people lead a better life. At the same time, the fundamental social system of China is that the people are the masters of the country, and the people are the masters of the country.

Aristotle's justice thought affirmed the important position of law-abiding justice in the concept of justice, and believed that fairness was more reflected in the rule of law. These views have important reference significance for the construction of legal system in today's Chinese society. It shows that our pursuit of justice today needs to unify citizen morality with the construction of national system. Aristotle paid attention to the selection and construction of city-state polity. He believed that only a good polity could guarantee the fair realization of law for individuals. For China, the socialist system emphasizes that the people are the masters of the country, and everyone has equal political rights. The constitution protects the people's political rights and interests, and gives citizens great equal rights in the system and guarantees the productivity and system. The development of media and public opinion forces in recent years has enabled citizens to gain more equal voice. The openness and transparency of government responsibilities and rights make citizens feel more comfortable to participate in politics. Citizens gradually enhance their political ideas and become powerful supervisors of the government, executors of the society and gainers of interests. Aristotle emphasized personal virtue and believed that the improvement of citizens' quality could make up for the defects of the system and promote the perfection of the system to a large extent. The improvement of citizen quality is now our country society should pay attention to the problem.

In recent years, according to the ascension of citizen quality problem, the countries concerned to give citizens the macro means such as the interests of the equal rights and equal to ascend, though effective, but the citizens of various integrity problems emerge in endlessly, which requires countries at the same time attaches importance to meet the material desire of citizens, citizens' mental development. When arguing the realization of political city-state, Aristotle emphasized justice as the foundation, while when elaborating justice, he especially emphasized the guarantee function of good law, believing that without good law, maintaining the order of city-state was a fantasy. In China's current stage of gradual improvement of the socialist system, the construction of the legal system has yet to be completed. This needs to be based on the principle of justice and respect for citizens, according to the reality of our country to develop a legal system in line with the current society. The revision of our current law is the embodiment of this principle.

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