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Descartes philosophy

2019-10-23 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Descartes philosophy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了笛卡尔的哲学。笛卡尔的哲学思想开启了西方近代哲学的历史,是西方哲学二元论思维体系的重要组成部分。笛卡尔的整个哲学体系分为三个部分,分别是形而上学、物理学和其他具体科学,在形而上学方面阐释了二元论哲学体系,证明了上帝存在的真实性,但在其物理学和其他科学方面,则又完全不认可神在社会生活中的作用,在此基础上构建起了机械唯物主义体系。由此笛卡尔哲学思想具有较为明显的二元特征,这影响了在其之后西方哲学思想家的思维方式。

Descartes philosophy, which started the history of modern western philosophy, is an important part of the dualist thinking system of western philosophy. Descartes' philosophy of the whole system is divided into three parts, respectively is metaphysics and physics, and other specific sciences, explains the dualism in metaphysics philosophy, prove the authenticity of the existence of god, but in their physics and other sciences, recognition, and no god in the role of social life, on the basis of building up the system of mechanical materialism. Therefore, Descartes' philosophical thought has a relatively obvious dual characteristic, which influenced the thinking mode of western philosophical thinkers after him.

The development history of modern philosophy is that in the process of self-denial and correction of philosophical thinkers, they constantly transcend their own thoughts, so as to realize the philosophical scientific interpretation of various phenomena in the current world. Descartes philosophy started the history of modern western philosophy, and what it wanted to solve was the basic understanding of the absolute certainty and universal unity of "things", which was shown in its reflective philosophy, skeptical spirit and other dual philosophical thoughts. Through the in-depth analysis of Descartes' philosophical spirit, we can have a more clear understanding of the evolution and development history of the western philosophy's dual thinking, so as to evaluate and summarize the development of western philosophy and open the way of the dual thinking of modern western philosophy.

Descartes in an era of the knowledge renewal, and therefore the most important foundation of its ideas is to review every disciplines and tries to put forward a new idea, the course of the study he pay more attention to the reflection of the problems of philosophy methodology and apply in physics mechanical thought to its philosophical system, provide the legitimacy and possibility for the development of modern philosophy. From Descartes' point of view, the function of philosophy is not only limited to the leading role in real life, but also reflected in the role played by its various components. It emphasizes that the unity of all sciences lies in the discussion of methodology, and philosophy should provide criteria for scientific research. Descartes regarded the mathematical method as the basic method of scientific research, and believed that the rational knowledge acquired through comprehensive analysis could make people believe in the content. Therefore, only by using this method could he realize his rational appeal, so as to judge and summarize the pains and gains of philosophical research.

Descartes' mechanistic philosophy opened the rational discussion of research methodology in western philosophy. First, it completed the transformation from Aristotle's natural philosophy to Descartes' mechanical philosophy, which was the most important ideological change in the development process of modern western philosophy. Although there are explanations of mechanical theory in the previous natural philosophy, Descartes' mechanical theory is not the same as previous studies, which is the technical application of the established physical knowledge, but focuses more on the discussion of methodology and the application of mechanical principles to solve practical problems. The second is to realize the combination of traditional philosophy and natural philosophy. In the philosophy of Descartes' philosophy in the traditional metaphysics and physics thoughts of natural philosophy is complementary, thinking mechanical physics problems by using philosophy thinking, thus forming a unique mechanistic philosophy, which emphasizes the foundation of metaphysics, and pay attention to the further research in the aspect of methodology, the formation of binary thinking for western philosophy laid a foundation.

In Descartes' philosophy in the world, is not considered to be justice principle or common sense things are not as reliable factors to explore the truth, and his philosophical thought with heavy skepticism of ideas, pay attention to review previous knowledge system, based on this, advances with the philosophy of self characteristic, thus on the basis of rationalism to ensure that the philosophy of science "is demonstrably sex". One is that all science needs to be studied on the basis of reason, and only in this way can the knowledge acquired be "certainty". On this issue, the cartesian to "dreams" as an example to explain, emphasize the people in the dream to dream of what happens when everything is real, but actually, these things are illusory, does not represent the real world, and it is this feature enables to distinguish between reality and dream, the ultimate goal of philosophy of science is to find the exact knowledge. Second, Descartes' doubt is not selective, but brings all objects into doubt. It is believed that people's own feelings are unreliable and cannot be the basis for acquiring rational knowledge. However, People's Daily activities seem to be certain, but dream activities are not quite the same as the actual situation. Mathematical methods are clear and definite and can be used as the basic content of various studies.

Descartes' philosophy seems to be stuck in a cycle, namely on the basis of the doubts about everything seems can't find can justify a reliable scientific content, which provokes questions for binary thinking rational thinking, problems appear constantly, and become important guarantee to promote the development of philosophy and a variety of social science. After Descartes, philosophers in the development history of modern western philosophy have tried to use speculative thinking to understand and transform the world, and at the same time, they should abandon the possibility of the influence of self-feeling, dreams and other non-certainty factors, so as to realize that I do not doubt the thinking.

Descartes philosophy has a profound criticism color, is the reflection and subversion of past philosophy, the philosophy of science "is demonstrably sexual content" particular concern, think that these basic content is to ensure that the philosophy to establish an integral part of, for those with an established beliefs, perception and feeling, need to make a thorough cleaning, and discusses the "thinking" and "in" binary relation. Starting from the doubt of things, Descartes philosophy emphasizes that the foundation of its theoretical certainty lies in the content of people's thinking, that is, the so-called concept of "thinking", that is, people's understanding of their own existence. This knowledge enables people to make clear the basic objects they study, so as to deepen their profound understanding of philosophical content. Descartes theory about the "think" and "in" is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is "thinking" is the man's thoughts can be used to feel the most directly the objective activity, through the understanding of the objective activity prove things and the real existence of self, and then use the real thing to know and transform the whole scientific world. The second is that "being" starts from the spirit of doubt, arouses self-understanding in continuous practice activities, and understands the meaning of its own existence in the process of gradual reflection.

Descartes' discussion of "thinking" and "being" is mainly focused on the understanding of the field of ideas and methodology, reflecting the clarity and authenticity of the subject of "thinking" and "being", and then deducing the "certainty" of his philosophical thought system. The influence of Descartes' "thinking" and "being" on the dualistic thinking of western philosophy lies in the fact that it has triggered the later philosophical research. A Descartes theory about the "think" and "in" demonstrates the dual nature of the world, this argument is a kind of transcendental theory, or the need for the philosophy theory of argument, if it's need to demonstrate, through what way argument to ensure its effectiveness, it is worth exploring the philosophical foundation of the problem. Second, the dualistic world studied by Descartes is a real dualistic world, so his philosophical theory is not only limited to the confirmation of the status of the subject and the exploration of self-consciousness, but more importantly leads people to know a more real and rich real world.

Descartes' theory of the unity of mind and matter contrasts mind and matter, which is characterized by obvious dualism. In his discussion, he acknowledges the rational role and basic functions of people in the process of cognition. However, the balance between mind and matter has been hard to justify, which is also the defect of his theoretical research. Descartes took general doubt as the starting point and found the first principle that could not be doubted, namely "thinking" and "being", thus elevating human subject consciousness to the height of the absolute starting point of the whole philosophy. This also leaves a certain question worthy of later philosophers to study, that is, how to unify the metaphysical characteristics of the philosophical system he created with rationalism, that is, how to play a greater role in practice.

After Descartes, in order to avoid the limitation of dualism in Descartes' philosophical system, many philosophers adopted various methods to study it, which enriched the dualism of western philosophical thought. Malebranche proposed to abolish nature as an independent entity, advocating absolute idealism, Hobbes proposed to abolish spirit as an independent entity, affirming materialism. Spinoza replaced cartesian dualism with the parallel theory of mind and body, and proposed to make both spirit and matter become the manifestation of absolute entity god or nature, trying to solve this problem from the unity of the two. Leibniz's thought combined theology with rationalist philosophy, and wolff pushed rationalism into the abyss of metaphysical dogmatism. Finally, marxist dialectical materialism and historical materialism, represented by the theory of practice, really solve this problem.

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