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The early piano of Mozart's time

2019-10-08 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The early piano of Mozart's time,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了莫扎特时期的早期钢琴。在18世纪后半叶古典时期,早期钢琴盛行之前,欧洲的王公贵族中盛行的是拨弦键琴,即大键琴和小键琴。这种乐器的特点是听上去没有明显的强弱变化,有清脆灵活的音色。目前世界上仅保存了三台克里斯特弗利制造的古钢琴,他们分别安置于美国的纽约大都会博物馆,私人收藏于意大利罗马和德国的莱比锡。

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Mozart is a very important classical composer in Europe, his works in all keyboard music has an unassailable supremacy, is also every music lover and professional players must learn part. Players often think that the seemingly simple score is not well handled by music in performance.

In the long course of history, the industrial revolution in the 18th century brought great changes to the life and society of human beings. We have seen the evolution of civilization and the ceaseless innovation and exploration of mankind. Similarly, great changes have taken place in the field of music instruments. This topic is rarely mentioned in the music education of our country -- what kind of instrument the piano evolved from, whether the keyboard instrument in Mozart's period of history has a completely different sound from the modern piano, what its structure is like, and so on.

In the classical period in the second half of the 18th century, before the early piano, the harpsichord, the harpsichord and the harpsichord, prevailed among the princes and nobles of Europe. This instrument is characterized by a clear and flexible timbre with no obvious change of strength and strength, and its sound is made by gently plucking the strings with a feather crown plectrum, as its name suggests. Baroque period composer johann Sebastian Bach created a large number of works for it. In the 18th century, bartolomeo christofley, an Italian harpsichord maker, wanted to combine the advantages of the harpsichord and the harpsichord to create a more advanced instrument. The music term Forte stands for "strong", meaning loud; Piano means weak; sound is weak. Toromeo christofley tried for several years to create a keyboard instrument that could produce strong and weak sounds. This instrument was called a Forte Piano. Only three clavichord pianos made by Christopher Foley remain in private collections in Rome, Italy, and leipzig, Germany.

After 1720, the development of the clavichord stagnated for a while, and then in 1760, the trend of musical instrument innovation broke out again. To sum up, some of christofley's innovations were important to the development of the piano: the mallet, the weak pedal, the escapement.

In an age of harpsichord strings or by touching the chink plectrum, the invention of the hammer that players can by finger touch different keys speed and strength, make different vibration hammer striking strings, produce strong and weak points of the voice, voice hammer can be automatically bounce back again, after this is a piano hammer's early form. Unlike today, mallets were made from parchment cylinders and mallets wrapped in leather.

The invention of the weak pedal was not technically a pedal at this time. When the pedal is activated, the mallet moves to the right, striking only one string, changing the pitch and tone. Such devices were manually operated in the 18th century harpsichord era, so players often adjusted the pedals before playing, or after individual passages, in order not to interfere with performance, rather than changing the tone between passages. It is very laborious to play with one hand while setting the soft pedal with the other. In the late 18th century, as musicians grew more and more in need of pitch and tone variations, but grew tired of using their hands to adjust the muted pedals, the harpsichord makers tried to create a way of using the kneepad instead of the hand. Mozart hailed the new device, telling a lutist named John Andrews stein: "when an instrument allows you to play it, using your knees to process the duller or the delay is simply better than any other instrument. All you have to do is touch it a little, move your knee a little, and you won't hear any reverb."

The escapement is designed to prevent the mallet from bouncing or striking a second time after the keys have been held down. To stabilize the tone, balance the tension by using thicker strings than the harpsichord, a heavier inner plate, and a straight string track. The innovation and development of these devices was a great advance at the time.

Before the middle of the 18th century, the harpsichord was the preferred keyboard instrument in Europe. The harpsichord was considered a very luxurious item in the society at that time. The price of a clavichord is four or five times higher than that of a harpsichord, which makes it difficult for the clavichord to be accepted by the public in the musical instrument market and delays the era when clavichord becomes the first choice for keyboard instruments.

The real development of the clavichord was in Germany, and its development from the first half of the 18th century to christofley's innovations was very small. Between 1700 and 1760, the harpsichord and clavichord existed simultaneously. Nowadays, people who specialize in early pianos often use the name of the luthier and the date to tell them apart. Two harpsichord makers became popular during Mozart's time, and in modern times most imitation clavichord pianos are made in their names and structures.

John Andrews stein, who is best known for developing the Vienna clapper. Many players rated steinmeier's instrument highly for its extremely sensitive touch and easy to control hammer. Mozart wrote to his father many times about steinstein's hand-made pianos and the soft sound of his instruments. Stein is a luthier who follows the tradition of making by hand and does most of the work himself. He was used to bending wood in a natural way, making boards and other parts by hand. Steinstein's soundboard was thinner than that of the Viennese luthier of his time and even of his own successors, and the thin soundboard brought a special tone and a relatively rich overtone. Due to the long service life of his instrument and his improvement of the Viennese clavichord, such high requirements laid a good foundation for the entire clavichord making market.

Gabriel Anton walter was also a Viennese clavichord maker. His studio was very famous at the time. Scholars say that walter's studio reputation came primarily from aristocrats, not musicians. Walter was the first harpsichord maker to improve the aforementioned steinmeier clavichord by inventing a special design that prevented the mallet from bouncing. After 1790 this design became standard on the walter clavichord. His instruments were highly rated for both timbre and durability, and Mozart acquired a walter clavichord in 1782 and another in 1792. Beethoven also expressed his admiration for the excellent quality of walter's pianos, which dominated the entire Viennese clavichord market in the late 18th century.

In terms of weight, the clavichord is much lighter than modern pianos. A clavichord weighs 75 kilograms, while a modern nine-foot triangle can reach 480 kilograms. Apparently, lightness is due not only to the fact that the clavichord's keys are small and light and have only five octaves, as modern pianos have 88 keys, but also to the fact that the strings of modern pianos are made of steel and the bass areas are wound with copper to increase the girth of the strings. The hammers of modern pianos use felt hammers, while the hammers of clavichord are wrapped in leather. In performance, felt hammers are more stable than leather. The clavichord with iron strings and leather hammers has a very sweet and mellow tone effect. The steel strings and felt hammers of modern pianos produce a much brighter, glummer and sometimes harsher sound. Interesting is the ancient piano strings is arranged all of them are straight, with modern piano strings is cross X shape, cross the strings in order to make the sound focus on the soundboard, create a roar, the effect of this melody for 19th century sex play music works are very helpful, but for the 18th-century delicate short music line or frequent homophones is less appropriate. This is why modern pianos often produce beautiful, shallow, superficial results when playing works from the classical period, but fail to show the subtle changes in every tone because the instruments are not allowed.

The timbre of keyboard instruments varies greatly according to their construction, which leads to a certain deviation in our cognition and understanding of works of classical period. To know a piece of music, we rarely know what the instrument looked like and sounded like hundreds of years ago, except for the composer himself and his background. I hope this article can open up new ideas for more people. Exploring Musical Instruments in the historical period is a very important process of respecting works and thinking about music.

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