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Sino-us new material industry policy system

2019-09-30 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Sino-us new material industry policy system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中美新材料产业政策体系。新材料是国际竞争的重点领域之一,是决定一国高端制造及国防安全的关键因素。美国新材料产业发展支持政策可追溯到克林顿时期。1991年,美国政府提出首份国家关键技术报告,新材料居于影响国家经济繁荣和安全的6大类关键技术领域之首。之后,为巩固其优势地位,美国不断出台大量政策措施,形成较为完善的政策体系。而中国则形成了以新材料产业发展折子工程为抓手,各部门协同配合、国家新材料产业发展专家咨询委员会提供决策支撑的工作体系。中国新材料产业政策内容相对零散,政策总体仍待完善。

China's new-materials industry development support policy goes back to the Clinton years. In 1991, the U.S. government issued the first national key technology report, and new materials ranked first in six key technology areas that affect the country's economic prosperity and security. In recent years, in order to consolidate its dominant position, the United States has continuously introduced a large number of policy measures and formed a relatively complete policy system. China has formed a new material industry development hinge project as the starting point, each department coordination, the national new material industry development expert advisory committee to provide decision-making support system. However, it should also be noted that China's new material industry policy is still to be improved as a whole, and the policy content is relatively fragmented. In terms of fiscal, tax and financial policies, r&d system, intellectual property rights, standards, talents and trade, it is very necessary for China to create a better policy environment for the development of new materials industry.

There are significant differences between Chinese and American governments in the amount, mode, use limit and guiding role of direct financial support for new material enterprises. First, the United States spends hundreds of billions of dollars on material research every year. Since 2017, China's financial expenditure in the field of new materials is only about 3.2 billion yuan, with a huge gap. Second, U.S. funding for the new materials initiative is allocated to support projects, which are usually jointly applied by the government, enterprises and universities. In addition to government funding, enterprises also need to invest proportionally. Most of the government funds in China are directly allocated to the material production enterprises, which allocate and use them according to the government regulations. Third, the us government's long-term and stable support for the development plan of new material industry represents the government's approval and effectively drives the flow of private capital. China's government's financial support has a limited guiding role in the financial field, and there are great differences in the fund operation mode, management mode, fund source and exit mechanism.

The financing sources of Chinese and American small and medium-sized new material enterprises are mainly self-raised funds, and both of them have some financing difficulties. However, there are significant differences in commercial loan guarantee and venture capital policies between the two countries. American small and medium-sized enterprises own capital accounts for about 58%. The small business administration introduces private capital into the field of venture capital in the form of loan guarantee and small business investment company construction, effectively improving the financing environment for small and medium-sized new material enterprises. In our country and no new material indirect financing regulation policy, small loans and government loan guarantees to perform the effect not beautiful, risk investment mechanism is not yet mature, mainly through policy support for commercial Banks to issue guidance, perfect the construction of the gem and indirect ways, such as the new three board to promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

China and the United States have developed a complete r&d system for new materials industry. The United States has established an organizational system for research and development of new materials, from research and development to application, industrialization and supporting services, with particular emphasis on creating a legal and institutional environment that encourages innovation and entrepreneurship, and transformation of research projects. Among them, research institutions, incubators, university technology transfer offices, non-profit organizations and enterprises have a clear and orderly division of labor, and the combination of industry, education, research and application is close. But our country has established the new material innovation system which takes the enterprise as the main body, the market as the guidance, the production, the study and the research USES the union. National laboratories for new materials and engineering research centers have played a role in promoting the industrialization and innovation of new materials, and have given key support to the technology and industrialization of new materials through national 863 program, 973 program, national natural science foundation of China and other national programs. Compared with the United States, power in China's science and technology system is more centralized. The government formulates policies, goals and strategies in a top-down manner, emphasizing the efficiency of implementation. Compared with the diversified and decentralized federal funding system in the United States, China's new materials industry can centrally fund projects through the leading group system.

There are significant differences between China and the United States in terms of institutional environment, patent application and standard setting. First, the United States attaches great importance to the legislation of intellectual property rights for new materials, and its institutional environment is perfect. Laws and regulations such as the inventor protection law, the patent law and the trademark law provide adequate protection for intellectual property rights. The United States trademark and Patent Office plays an important role. A complete technology transfer system covering national, regional, industrial, university and federal laboratories has been established. In recent years, China has also realized the importance of intellectual property system environment, but there is still much room for improvement in legislation, patent system, budget allocation, project management evaluation, industry-university-research cooperation and other aspects. Second, there are differences in the number and quality of patent applications. The U.S. chemical industry has nearly three times as many patents as China's, especially in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and polymer materials. However, China pays attention to the patent layout in the field of new materials. In 2016, the number of patent authorization applications in the field of new materials in China was 7,636, accounting for 46.3% of the total applications from China, the United States and Japan. Third, the development maturity of standardization activities in the field of new materials is different. Standardization activities in the field of new materials in the United States are all carried out around the American national standards institute, and there are currently more than 11,000 national standards. China is a standard setting mechanism led by the government. The national level has not yet issued new material standards and statistical system as a whole, and the standards, measurement and macro-management system are not perfect.

Both China and the us have made great efforts to develop various preferential policies to attract high-level talents in the field of new materials. From the government, universities and enterprises, the United States has provided a more active and favorable talent policy, which has attracted many high-level talents. Immigration policy, foreign student policy and international exchange and cooperation policy constitute the policy system of attracting foreign scientific and technological talents. China has stepped up efforts to introduce high-level overseas talents in the field of new materials through programs such as the support program for students studying abroad to start businesses back home and the nakako program. There are obvious differences between China and the United States in the policy thinking of high-level talents. First, the United States attaches great importance to the combination of domestic training and foreign introduction, while China attaches great importance to foreign introduction and weakens domestic independent training. Second, the United States attaches great importance to the introduction and cultivation of potential or future high-level talents, while China attaches great importance to the attraction and support of existing talents. Third, the United States provides high financial aid for high-level talents, creates a favorable research environment and provides first-class research platform, while China lays emphasis on economic incentives and power temptations while weakening the cultivation of academic soil and support for scientific research conditions.

The United States has established a comprehensive and complex system of unilateral and multilateral export control at both domestic and international levels. Laws, regulations and rules such as the export administration act, the export administration regulations and the commercial control list constitute the complete export administration system of the United States, which enables the United States to skillfully use various measures to implement trade protection. However, China's new material industry is in the middle and low end as a whole, and some high-end key materials are still dependent on imports. The net export trade of new materials is more to cope with international trade friction.

We will continue to give full play to the role of the national leading group office for the development of new materials industry, further implement the new materials folding project, coordinate new materials planning, plans, funds, projects and other work of various departments, and form synergy. Second, we will give full play to the role of the national advisory committee of experts on the development of new materials industry, and support local governments in establishing provincial-level leading groups on new materials. Third, strengthen the construction of social intermediary organizations, establish industrial alliances in key new material fields, encourage local governments to establish new material industry associations, and study and establish national new material industry associations. Fourth, strengthen the layout of regional cooperation, and support regional research institutes of new materials industry technology with strong market demand, large-scale industrial clusters, and sound upstream and downstream industrial chains. Fifth, support scientific research institutes to establish technology transfer office and scientific research results incubator. Strive to form a department collaboration, upper and lower linkage, support a strong work system.

We will accelerate the establishment of upstream and downstream cooperation mechanisms on automotive lightweight materials and rare earth luminescent materials. The overall layout of production application demonstration platform and test evaluation platform was studied and proposed. Second, the resource sharing system. We will build a platform for parameter databases and resource sharing, promote the open sharing of data, talents, equipment and instruments among enterprises and research institutes, and provide support services for technology transactions, investment and financing. Third, a collaborative innovation system. We will build national manufacturing innovation centers such as graphene and lightweight materials, pool the efforts of universities, research institutes and the ministry of industry, and promote the flexible flow and rational allocation of knowledge, capital and talent. Fourth, the statistical system. According to the new development of new material industry, more scientific statistical classification of new material industry should be established to strengthen the monitoring and analysis of the development of new material industry. Fifth, the standard system. Strengthen the top-level design of new material technical standard system, and issue the pilot plan of new material standard as soon as possible. Learn from the experience of developed countries in standard formulation, give full play to the resource advantages of enterprises, industries and associations, innovate the mechanism of new material standard formulation, strengthen the close connection between new material standards and downstream design norms, and improve the authority and implementation effect of new material standards in China. Sixth, the evaluation system. We should improve the personnel assessment system of research institutes and state-owned enterprises and the supervision and evaluation system of government-funded projects, and create a good atmosphere conducive to the development and application of new materials and the use of funds.

We should explore the dynamic adjustment of the scope system of new material import tax reduction or exemption catalogue, and timely transfer the products in the catalogue that can achieve domestic scale production, and no longer enjoy preferential tax treatment, or give domestic enterprises the same preferential tax treatment. The import of key production equipment that is urgently needed in the field of new materials and cannot be met at home shall be given tax incentives; We will give full play to the role of government procurement in guiding the application of new materials, and encourage the preferential use of the first batch of products from the catalogue of secondary applications. Second, improve the research and development system, formulate medium - and long-term development technology roadmap for key new material products such as graphene, superalloy and lightweight materials, and regularly organize experts to revise them. We will increase the proportion of funds invested in research and development of materials. Third, we will strengthen standards for intellectual property rights and patents. We will improve intellectual property laws and management systems, strengthen the evaluation and examination of patent applications for new materials, and improve the quality of patents. We should pay attention to the combination of direct transfer of patents and capitalization transformation of patents, explore the wholesale transformation methods such as auction and capitalization of equity, and promote the improvement of the transformation of intellectual property rights into assets. Fourth, we will intensify efforts to cultivate talents. Encourage large or state-owned enterprises to take the lead in establishing chief materials officers; Universities and new material enterprises jointly establish internship bases to train interdisciplinary talents. Fifth, we will maintain a fair trade order and actively address trade frictions in the field of new materials.

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