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The body

2019-08-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The body,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了身体的理论。克里斯·希林在他的著作《身体与社会理论》中声称,玛丽·道格拉斯作品的主题是“社会限制了人们对身体的感知和体验”。换句话说,对道格拉斯来说,是社会决定了我们的衣着和举止。道格拉斯对自我与社会关系的思考确实传达了一种关于我们的生活和社会的真理。然而,当个性、平等和自由成为我们当代社会的主导意识形态时,这一概念似乎再也不能像过去几个世纪那样成立了。在道格拉斯看来,我们的身体可以分为两类——社会和身体:社会决定着我们身体的外貌和举止;而我们的身体则是社会的隐喻或象征,是社会的一种表征。

Chris Shilling claims in his book, The Body and Social Theory (1993), that the general theme in Mary Douglas’s work is the concept that “the social body constrains how the physical body is perceived and experienced” (Shilling 2003, p. 65). In other words, for Douglas, it is society that decides both our appearance (dress) and our deportment. Douglas’s consideration of the relationship between the self and society does convey a kind of truth about both our life and our society. However, when individuality, equality and freedom become the dominant ideologies in our contemporary society, it seems that such a concept cannot hold true any more, as it did in the previous centuries.

Douglas’s concept of the body, “everything symbolises the body” while “the body symbolises everything else” (Douglas 2002: p. 123), discussed in Purity and Danger (1966), became a fundamental subject in anthropology (Synnott 2002: p. 229). In this concept, Douglas aims to show an important relationship between the body and society around it: the body and society reflect each other’s characteristics. In the same writing, Douglas considers the body as both the representation of society – “a complex structure” which can “afford a source of symbols for other complex structures”, and as “a symbol of society” due to the fact that “the powers and dangers credited to social structure [were] reproduced in small on the human body” (Douglas 2002: p. 142). Four years later in another work, Natural Symbols (1970), Douglas divides the body into two parts: “The two bodies are the self and society” (Douglas 1996: p. 87). In other words, according to Douglas, we possess two sorts of bodies: one is “the self”, our physical or naturalistic body, a biological entity; the other refers to our social body, or the body as a symbol or metaphor of society, as it is “constructed within ideological and social processes” (Blackman 2008, p. 28). Douglas develops her view in detail as follows: “The social body constrains the way the physical body is perceived. The physical experience of the body, always modified by the social categories through which it is known, sustains a particular view of society” (Douglas 1996: p. 69).

To conclude, in introducing Shilling’s statement of Douglas’s theme, we first explored Douglas’s idea about the body and society and her view on their relationship. In Douglas’s eyes, our body can be divided into two sorts – our social body and our physical body: it is our social body that decides the appearance and the deportment of our physical body; while our physical body is a metaphor or symbol of society, a representation of society. Douglas’s concept resonates with that of other scholars, such as Shilling and Foucault. Then, through a discussion of Woolf’s novel, Orlando: A Biography, we considered that Douglas’s or her group’s idea seems to convey some truth about social relationship in the past centuries. However, in the last part of this essay, we showed that such a concept couldn’t be used to discuss the body in our contemporary era any more.

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