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How American think tanks work

2019-07-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- How American think tanks work,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国智库的运作机制。作为公共政策共同体的一部分,美国智库在政治和政策过程中的影响力与日俱增。美国智库在参与政治和政策上并非完全一致。有的智库更具独立性,遵循市场化的运行机制,更强调对政府政策的批评,更注重实证和定量的研究方法,在对政治和政策的影响力上更具持续性和实战性。有的智库更具个人或者政党依赖性,更多遵循社会关系的运行机制,更强调对领导人和政党政治及政策的阐释和佐证,更强调提供新理念和新思维,在对政治和政策的影响力上时断时续。

American think tank,美国智库,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Think Tank, also known as Brain Tank, Think Factory, Outside Brain, Brain Trust, Consultant Cooperation or Intelligence Research Center, etc. Whatever its name, a think tank is a "repository" of knowledge and ideas, a powerful force in American politics. Especially since the end of world war ii, the number of institutions known as think tanks has almost tripled, and a large number of policy researchers working for think tanks have become the focus of American media and public opinion. They are the subject of congressional hearings, gushing commentators in the news media, often issuing countless so-called "policy briefs" in the name of think tanks, and even going straight to the desks of the President and other senior officials. In short, think tanks are active in all fields of the American political arena and have a very prominent influence on the public policies of the American government, which is called "the fifth power" by the American media.

As a part of the public policy community, the influence of American think tank in the political and policy process is increasing day by day. The nature, structure, mechanism, development strategy of think tank itself and the specific mechanism, method and technology of think tank to participate in political and policy affairs are also undergoing profound adjustment and change. Generally speaking, the development trend of American think tanks' participation in politics and policy mainly includes the following six aspects:

Traditionally, think tanks have been trying their best to build a neutral image of political impartiality. They attach great importance to the academic, intellectual and ideological nature of think tanks, and do not get involved in the struggle between political parties, let alone tie themselves to a political party. Think tanks such as the brookings institution, the Carnegie endowment for international peace, and the council on foreign relations all emphasize providing objective political and policy advice to the government. The brookings institution even defines itself as "a university without students." However, at present, American think tanks are developing in the direction of advocacy, and a large number of advocacy think tanks have emerged, becoming the most dynamic think tank. Examples include the heritage foundation, the center for a new American security, and the center for American progress. These think tanks try their best to shape their politicization bias, to show their ideology and political preference to politics and policies, and to define the reason of wisdom inventory as providing policy services for a certain party and political force.

Previous think tanks emphasized hierarchical structural planning, such as the brookings institution, which adopted industrialized general management and hierarchical allocation of research resources. The number of researchers in the pursuit of scale advantage, in contrast to the model of universities and colleges to build think tanks. As a result, traditional think tanks tend to be large, redundant and complex, with high management costs. Since the 1990 s, an American think-tank toward flat structure, a large number of small and exquisite, a think-tank, such as a new American security center, center for American progress, such as the United States plans in the new century, the think tank is emphasized to reduce the number of professional researchers and a large number of part-time researcher, strengthen the liquidity of the researchers, a large number of recruiting interns and visiting scholars, in order to improve the efficiency and reduce cost. This reform is consistent with the reform of the commission contract and the distribution of relevant functional departments. As a result, think tanks in the United States are becoming more and more flat. The number of people involved in the research and development and promotion of think tanks is increasing, while the number of full-time policy researchers who are really affiliated to think tanks is decreasing, and think tanks are more flexible in participating in politics and policies.

In the past, the construction of think tank has the thinking of traditional discipline construction. Think tank's research on political and policy affairs has the characteristics of systematicness, comprehensiveness and strategicality, and almost all the issues concerned by a country's politics and policies should be studied. The rand corporation, for example, the research content covers economic, science and technology, military, security, political, social, environmental, and many other areas, a complete coverage of the comprehensive type research makes think-tank looks more like a "invisible government", into a mire of every detail, results and restricted the think-tank service political and policy advantage. , a think-tank in recent years, more emphasis on political and policy system project, in accordance with the political and policy of the most important problem facing to carry on the project Settings, according to the project temporary recruitment for visiting scholars, the researcher or research project lead formed by minorities, interdisciplinary, all areas involved in research and development team, through the study activity driver, in puts forward the new idea at the same time, pay attention to social influence and the media exposure, increasing the think-tank service pertinence and efficiency of the politics and policy. The center for strategic and international studies, the Carnegie endowment for international peace, and the hoover institution all emphasize project-driven policy experts, who determine projects according to policy requirements and allocate resources according to projects.

Traditionally, is competing relationship between think-tank, such as the brookings institution and American enterprise institute, there is a fierce competition, each other to camp, highly independent, for the opportunity to make recommendations to the government, and even some think tank in order to get more government and business of the agency contract, do not hesitate to preempt the other think-tank resources, to some departments implement monopoly, in relationships, party factions, agencies, preference, etc., vicious competition. Monopoly in recent years, with the speeding up of informatization, the government has been impossible, started to develop strategic cooperation relationship between think-tank, sharing resources, sharing information, sharing opportunities, especially many think-tank relatively concentrated in the capital region, all sorts of policy dialogue very frequently, often open resources, each other to create mutually beneficial win-win mechanism, a think-tank the mutual penetration and mutual dependence between has been strengthened. Think-tank network development is not only limited to domestic, but also in the global scope rapid development, many American think-tank began to set up offices abroad, such as the United States at the Carnegie endowment for international peace and the brookings institution compete to set up a cooperative r&d center at tsinghua university, carry out international joint research and development, as a new development strategy, a think-tank.

In the early western think tanks, the think tanks that focus on political and policy affairs and take foreign relations as the fundamental task are the council on foreign relations and the Carnegie endowment for international peace. Council on foreign relations, is for the U.S. government's most influential one of no obvious partisan think tank, the Carnegie endowment for international peace early activities have more as a part of the government, not willing to work instead of the government to carry out the political and policy think-tank, to participate in politics and policy and politics and the government policy is to a great extent with the rail. In recent years, it has become a trend for us think tank to adopt two-track politics and policy. In national political and policy affairs, the government attaches great importance to the participation of senior experts from think tanks and academia in political and policy negotiations and dialogues, who play a very important role and assist in the work. Initially, the U.S. institute of peace was "an independent, nonpartisan federal agency authorized and funded by congress" that "is not subject to any political pressure, but provides research, analysis, and information assistance to government agencies, congress, and others." Therefore, to some extent, the institute of peace is not as "independent" as it claims. It is more like a "policy laboratory" of the United States government with close ties to the United States government. However, with the development and expansion of the United States institute of peace, more and more developed into an independent operating institution. In addition, many think tanks attach great importance to "track two diplomacy" with other countries. Such as the center for strategic and international studies, has launched some improve china-us relations scholars dialogue, dialogue with experts from the Chinese academia and think tanks, the current china-us relations in the existing problems and future trends, exchange ideas, enhance understanding, between the two countries play the official political and policy of "the second track" role, many times in New York of the United States and mainland China, Taiwan trilateral roundtable, has certain influence on the Clinton administration's policy toward China.

Think-tank in participation in political and policy at the same time, the policy is more and more professional and personalized service function, plays a political and policy information "processor", the concept of politics and policy "lab", the political and policy officials "training", "sermon" of public education, national politics and policy of "the second track", and many other roles, many professional and with high technical content of new ways and new methods emerge in endlessly. Such as the university of California institute of global cooperation and conflict in the early 1990 s by Arab countries and Israel held a series of scholars on arms control and regional security cooperation, water resources, environmental refugees and economic development policy problems, such as workshops, have started to use some specialized service politics and policy.

American think tanks are not completely consistent in participating in politics and policies. They also have their own characteristics in terms of institutional nature, role positioning, participation mechanism, methods and technologies, and performance. By contrast, some think tanks are more independent, follow the operational mechanism of marketization, pay more attention to the criticism of government policies, pay more attention to empirical and quantitative research methods, and have more sustainable and practical influence on politics and policies. Some think tanks rely more on individuals or political parties and follow the operational mechanism of social relations. They emphasize more on explaining and supporting the politics and policies of leaders and political parties, and more on providing new ideas and new thinking. Their influence on politics and policies is intermittent. Of course, despite many differences in the inventory of different wisdom, it is fundamentally a "think tank" of the political and policy system, which influences the politics and policies of the United States more as a "shadow government" and has a prominent influence.

In the United States, a think-tank, refers to independence from the government and enterprises, non-profit institutions engaged in research on public policy, belonging to the government research institutes and university departments are excluded, think-tank category they belong to the private sector and public sector in nature outside of the so-called "third sector", in law belongs to independent corporation, is the social public issues on the function of "knowledge brokers" or "brain", for including enterprises, government and other social sectors to provide ideas and countermeasures and Suggestions.

Meanwhile, there are many differences in American think-tanks. Some think tanks have strong ideological colors, such as the heritage foundation and the center for American progress. They all have obvious party preferences and ideological colors. Some think tanks emphasize political neutrality. For example, the brookings institution always emphasizes objective and neutral research and deals with political and policy research in a scientific spirit. Some think tanks emphasize social influence. For example, the new century plan of the United States emphasizes not only the influence on American politics and policies, but also the influence on American political and social trends. Some think tanks, such as the Wilson center at Princeton university, focus on the ideas that guide strategic and policy planning. Some think tanks, such as the center for a new American security and the heritage foundation, place great emphasis on strategic and countermeasure research. Their main goal is to have a practical impact on government policies.

As a group that influences the politics and policy makers of various countries, the transnational communication between think tanks also opens up an important channel of politics and policy, which is often called "the second track" by scholars. Of course, in the process of specific political and policy participation, different think tanks have different roles. Some think tank positioned itself as a "critics" the role of government political and policy behavior critics always position, to participate in politics and policy to external pressure patterns, such as the natural resources defense council, a public policy research think tank, such as environmental protection, human rights and anti-war like more external pressure action mode, as critics of the government's policy forever. By contrast, some think tanks position themselves as "architects" and "advisers", helping governments to devise ideas. Think tanks such as the council on foreign relations always take serving government politics and policy as their purpose. In addition, some think tanks only emphasize that they are "policy experts", while others also emphasize that they are "political and policy experts".

The participation mechanism of American think tanks has legal and institutional support, operates in accordance with the spirit of law, and has a high credibility. Even the smaller "mini" think-tanks are particularly institution-driven. For example, in personnel selection and management, financial management, project management, publication management, marketing promotion and other aspects, there are clear rules and regulations, administrative staff and researchers have a clear division of labor, business distinction.

In terms of participation mechanism, different think tanks have their own strategic routes. Some think tanks emphasize insider strategy, which involves political and policy participation through networking with political parties and politicians. For example, the brookings institution, which is closely related to the Democratic Party, has many important members who are Democrats, who provide ideas, reserves and talents for the democratic government. Every democratic government since President Truman has employed the members of this institution for important positions, so it is also known as the "democratic government-in-exile". It was President carter's brain trust.

Some think tanks focused on outsider strategy, which involved in politics and policies by mobilizing external forces such as public opinion, voters and interest groups to put pressure on the government. The heritage foundation and the American enterprise institute also use opinion magazines, journals, newsletters, and books to promote ideas to their target customers. The heritage foundation's policy review, for example, consists mainly of short essays by prominent conservatives on current policy issues. The brookings institution review, the American enterprise institute's American enterprise, and the Hudson institute's American view are similar magazines. The heritage foundation is almost certainly the think-tank with the most time and resources devoted to the media.

In terms of methods and technologies of participating in politics and policies, American think tanks encourage scientific methods that emphasize data, demonstration and quantification, and promote the scientific and professional construction of think tanks. To minimize the color of academic research, encourage policy debate and strategic debate, in the debate to test the persuasiveness and combat effectiveness of policy views.

Some think tanks stress to follow the path of policy initiatives, providing think tanks with new ideas, new agendas and new policies, and presenting political and policy propositions to the government by submitting various "research reports" and "policy briefs". Some think tanks stress the importance of interpersonal relationship rather than the idea of influencing government leaders. They focus more on influencing leaders themselves, providing talents to the government through the "revolving door", organizing various activities and building policy communities.

American think tanks have played a role of "mutual promotion and mutual use" in the performance of participating in politics and policies, which not only effectively serves government politics and policies, but also greatly expands the new space of public politics and policies. Some think tanks are prominent in terms of policy influence, and many of them can be quickly converted into government policies, which also have a great guiding effect on public opinion. Some think tanks' policy influences are not direct, but they have prominent long-term effects on political thoughts and ideologies. In terms of the performance of think tanks, more and more think tanks begin to focus on privatization, miniaturization, networking and resource sharing, and the competitiveness of large-scale think tanks begins to be challenged.

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