代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

The Developments of Civil-Service Examinations, Neo-Confucianism and Women’s Social Status during the Tang-Song Transformation Period

2019-05-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The Developments of Civil-Service Examinations, Neo-Confucianism and Womens Social Status during the Tang-Song Transformation Period,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了唐宋时期的科举、理学和女性社会地位。唐宋时期,科举制度有很大的发展,不仅确定了相关的制度,还放宽了录取范围,科举考试的内容也有变化。此外,还倡导并发展了一种新的思想——理学。然而,由于传统儒学和理学的影响,女性的地位并没有得到更好的发展。科举制度的扩张、理学的兴起和发展、女性地位的问题,使宋代成为中国历史上一个重要的转折点。

Tang-Song Transformation Period,唐宋时期,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Introduction

In Chinese history, it was the foundation of Song Dynasty after the demise of Tang Dynasty. The Song period divided itself into two parts: Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), the capital of which was Bianliang (At present, it is called Kaifeng, Henan) and Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), the capital of which was Lin’an (At present it is called Hangzhou, Zhejiang). Song Dynasty, in the charge of eighteen emperors, is a dynasty with highly prosperous commodity economy, cultural education and scientific innovation, during the reign of which Song government dedicated to building water conservancy projects, developing urban civilization, and has made great achievements in science and technology, such as inventing gunpowder, typography, and compass that all belong to Chinese four great inventions. Besides, Song Dynasty has made great achievements not only in science and technology but also in astronomy, biology and medicine, for example, the famous medical book Record of Redressing Mishandled Cases was written by Songci (1186-1249), medicolegist in Southern Song Dynasty. Moreover, there were plenty of world-famous art of painting and porcelain that were fond admiringly by Chinese men of literature and writing. And the expansion of civil-service examinations, the rising prominence of scholar-officials, the rise of Neo-Confucianism, re-definition of gendered space, thriving artistic and literary achievements, and an affluent urban culture have made Song Dynasty become an important turning point in Chinese history. Therefore, this paper aims to elaborate the new developments of civil-service examinations, Neo-Confucianism, and the social status of women during the Tang-Song Transformation.

The Development of Civil-Service Examinations

The reform and development of civil-service examinations of Song Dynasty was mainly reflected in these four aspects. The first is the foundation of name pasting system and transcription system. In the Tang dynasty, examinee rushed to the door of the principality to offer their master works on the account of they were selected as scholars depending not only on the examination results, but also on the recommendation of other famous people, which indeed made those who were talented show up. There is, however, no shortage of people cheating and deceiving. Besides, the phenomenon of people playing favouritism and commit irregularities has become more and more serious since Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty enlisted talents through the old civil service examination system, thus promoting Song Dynasty to build name pasting system, which refers to seal up the birthplace and name of examinee so that the examiners could not know anything even the handwriting about the examinee when they are reviewing examination papers. But, the examiners still have ability to identify the examinee they are fond of on the basis of their paintings. As a result, Song Dynasty has built another system-transcription system, which means the test paper of examinee needs to be copied separately. These two systems have made great effort to prevent the examiner from favoritism. The second is the final establishment of civil service examination time and system. In the tang dynasty, the civil service examination was held once a year, while Song Dynasty has made it held three years a time until the last civil service examination was held since Song yingzong (1032-1067) period. Except for state test and province test, Song Dynasty has also officially established Palace Examination during the reign of Song taizu (927-976), after which scholars were able to be selected as officials directly without passing the test of Ministry of Personnel. This system, in part, has greatly saved the time, money, manpower and material resources of a country. The third is the admission range of civil service examination has been relaxed in the Song Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, there were only twenty or thirty people were admitted to scholars once a time. On the contrast, Song Dynasty has relaxed its admission range from dozens of people to hundreds of people, the most of which could up to six hundred ordinary people. Moreover, for those who failed the examination many times, they were allowed to sign up for an added test when they  encountered emperor and even allowed to plea the emperor would award them a birth qualification so that they could be appointed an official, thus giving more chances for those who were born ordinary. The forth is the change of civil service examination content. In the Tang Dynasty, the civil examination was divided into Mingjing and Jinshi, the main test content of which was poetry and prose. The test content of Song Dynasty was nearly the same as that of Tang Dynasty in most of the time, except for in the Wang anshi (1021-1086) period during which the civil service examination content has been substituted by doctrine and policy instead of poetry and prose anymore.

The Rising and Development of Neo-Confucianism

In the tang dynasty, Confucianism was no longer the core of the Tang Dynasty and its historical status has been continuously challenged from Taoism and Buddhism based on the rise of Buddhism and Taoism, and the lag of Confucianism in strain. The rulers of Tang Dynasty often claimed to represent the descendant of Lao-tzu (BC571-BC471) to vigorously propagate Taoism, and Tang taizong Li Shih-min (598-649) delegated Xuanzang (602-664) to collect the scriptures to promote Buddhism. Therefore, the development of Taoism and Buddhism was not totally prevented due to its simple approaches even if men of insight such as Hanyu (768-824) and Li ao  (772-841) has realized that Confucianism was facing a great cultural challenge from Taoism and Buddhism, especially the foreign Buddhism and has put forward the new Confucianism thought, namely, the restoration movement of Confucianism. In this background, with the tide of Buddhism permeating to each field of society and with the continuing thinking and exploration of Song’s Confucian to constantly absorb the content of Buddhism and Taoism, Song Dynasty has formed a kind of new philosophical group, Neo-Confucianism, which could be the product of thought reconstruction and classical Confucianism, in some extent, even could be a restoration movement of Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism was divided into two parts: Neo-Confucianism of Cheng-Zhu, objective idealism theory and-mind theory of Lu-Wang, subjective idealism theory. The representative of Neo-Confucianism of Cheng-Zhu is Zhuxi (1130-1200) who thought that Tai ji containing “Li” and “Qi” was the essence of universe and ontology. Tai Ji, full of goodness and beauty, synthesizes all the theories and transcends time and space. On the other hand, the representative of heart-mind theory of Lu-Wang is Wang yangming (1472-1529) who treated heart as the origin of universe. Heart-mind theory advocates that “heart” is “theory and everything is in the heart. In the late Southern Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism has become the orthodox ideology of China, which dominating Chinese culture for hundreds of years.

The Development of Chinese Women’s Social Status

Chinese women's status was growing lower and lower along with the emergency of Confucianism that advocated ethics and etiquette which has increasingly become ethics and conduct code of social mainstream, the thought of which that women were inferior to men has continuously restricted women’s rights, even during the period of matriarchal clan society-Xia Shang period, Chinese women was in a relatively high status. Song Dynasty, however, is a turning down point of Chinese women’s status, during the reign period of which women was not only in thought, but also physically imprisoned. Influenced by Neo-Confucianism of Cheng-Zhu, Song Dynasty advocated this marriage system- matches were arranged by go-betweens according to parents’ wishes, namely, parents absolutely had right to decide the marriage of their children, only agreed by parents of both men and women, and then introduced to each other by matchmakers could children be allowed to get married. Provided that a man dated with a woman without the consent of their parents and introduction of matchmakers, they would be despised by everyone they knew including their own parents. Chengyi (1033-1107), founder of Neo-Confucianism even put forward the worldly spurned thought that starving to death was a so tiny thing compared with women lost their chastity, which totally looked down upon women’s rights and sacrificed women’s freedom and value. Moreover, Chengyi has a heavy chastity viewpoint that opposed widow to remarrying and advocated women should defend their chastity to death. In the Song Dynasty, the government highly praised monogamy, that is, under any circumstances, women were not allowed to get married, if not, they would be condemned by social opinion. Therefore, the marriage system of Song Dynasty has imprisoned women’s thoughts for hundreds of years, constraining ideology development of Chinese women and hampering their happiness. Besides, in the Song Dynasty, people went in for bad custom- food-bonding in a big way, which physically oppressed and destroyed women. Foot-bonding is a kind of behavior that destroyed normal development of body. The woman who has feet bounded should begin to bundle her feet since she was a child, which would slowly deform her foot bones. The feet being bounded would cause many inconveniences for women’s real life and during the whole process of which women should suffered a lot that could not be standard. Examining many historical materials, the book history of foot-bonding written by Gao hongxing (2007) proved that it was not until Song Dynasty that Chinese women began to bound their feet and the earliest start of foot-bonding came from the royalty and upper class of Song Dynasty. In that time, private citizens considered bound feet beautiful due to the emperor and officials thought it the same way. People in that time thought the size of foot was also a part of women’s beauty, and the small feet was beautiful, otherwise it was ugly no matter how great their appearance and body. Provided someone got married with a woman with big feet, he would be thought ridiculous. People completely ignored women’s suffering, including famous scholars such as Su Shi (1037-1101) and Xin qiji (1140-1207). And influenced by Confucianism, men in Song Dynasty thought that foot-bonding could restrict women at home, constraining their activity ranges. Therefore, foot-bonding was not a respect for women and was a limitation to women’s freedom, which was also a physical destruction of women in the Song Dynasty.

Conclusion

To sum up, Song Dynasty, as a dynasty with highly prosperous commodity economy, cultural education and scientific innovation and a Dynasty in the charge of eighteen emperors, has dedicated to building water conservancy projects, developing urban civilization, and has made great achievements in science and technology, such as inventing gunpowder, typography, and compass that all belong to Chinese four great inventions. In the Song Dynasty, the civil-service examination has developed greatly in these four aspects: the first is the foundation of name pasting system and transcription system; the second is the final establishment of civil service examination time and system; the third is the admission range of civil service examination has been relaxed in the Song Dynasty, the forth is the change of civil service examination content. Besides, Song has advocated and developed a new kind of thought- Neo-Confucianism. However, women’s status has not gotten a better development due to traditional Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism. Therefore, the expansion of civil-service examinations, the rise and development of Neo-Confucianism, and the development of women’s status have made Song Dynasty become an important turning point in Chinese history.

Reference

Angela, Z 2007, ‘Secularizing the pain of footbinding in China: missionary and medical stagings of the universal body’, American Academy of Religion, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1-24.

Dean, E 2001, ‘Neo-Confucianism and physiotherapy: The Mind-Body-Spirit Connection’, Hong Kong Physiotherapy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3-8.

Duke, SM 2016, Chinese history and culture, Columbia University Press, America.

Ge, ZG 2013, History, ideology, and general ideological history: a case study of Chan Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty, Springer Singapore, Singapore.

Geisert & Brad 2010, ‘Neo-Confucianism in history’, Journal of World History, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 741-744.

Shih, H 2013, Woman’s place in Chinese history, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Germany.

Shih, H 2013, Religion and philosophy in Chinese history, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Germany.

Hall 2016, ‘Nerve/Nurses of the cosmic doctor: Wang Yang-ming on self-awareness as world-awareness’, Asian Philosophy, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 149-165.

Ko, D 2003, ‘Foot-binding in the museum’, Routledge, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 426-439.

Turner, LC 1997, ‘Locating footbinding: variations across class and space in nineteenth and early twentieth century China’, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, vol. 10, no.  4, pp. 444-479.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创assignment代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有assignment代写、essay代写、paper代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的assignment代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多assignment代写范文 提供美国作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:Lean production 下一篇:Community university should Ch