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Globalization and neoliberalism

2019-05-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Globalization and neoliberalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了全球化和新自由主义。全球化和新自由主义的核心是经济和资本的全球化,它深刻地改变了世界各国的生产方式,促进了全球资源配置和经济发展的优化。在就业关系方面,全球化最大的影响是使弱劳动力强资本的格局更加明显。

Globalization and neoliberalism,全球化和新自由主义,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

In the current context, people usually mean globalization neoliberalism by mentioning globalization. In the post-war period, Keynesian economic model encourages the world to pursue mass production and consumption to result in high economic growth. Neoliberalism began to rise since the 1970s under the condition of the overproduction crisis. Neoliberal economic model spread across the world rapidly. It had weakened the regulatory role of the state and taken the domination of the market, which caused a series of negative consequences such as job losses in the west, deteriorating employment conditions, loss of safety net and benefits, weaker unions, and unilateral wage determination. Despite of those, globalization and neoliberalism have huge impacted on industrial relations in the world.

Voluntarism has be a traditional mode of employment relations in the UK since the early 19th century. Unions represented labors’ benefits and proposed mistrust of the legal system during the early period. Back then the political and legal system was not favoring the labors and the government was attempting to regulate wages and benefits to make the situation better. At that time, collective bargaining and strikes strived for workers’ interests. But there were no legal rights to do so and the enforceability of agreement based on the union’s strength. Adapting to this environment, the employers wanted to avoid legally binding employment relations system. Compare the employment relations between the 1970s and the 21st century, the most significant changing modes of regulations in the UK are reflected in four aspects, wage determination, collective bargaining coverage, trade union conditions, and numbers of days lost to strike.

In the 1970s, workers’ wage determination was mainly through collective bargain. The collective bargaining coverage was as high as 70%, which implied that industry-wide bargaining was common. The trade union density was as high as 53.4%, and there were 13.3 million members in 1979. Days lost to strikes reached 2125 during this period of time.

Generally speaking, the UK had adopted a free and diversified employment relation’s adjustment mode. It is worth emphasizing that the trade unions played a very important role in the industrial relations in the UK in the 1970s. The basis or conditions for setting up unions in Britain were connected or similar industries. Large enterprises often had more than one large trade union. They were interconnected, cooperative, and competing, which forms a complex relationship among the unions. Negotiations with the government, mainly to determine wage bargaining, were the main work and means of the British trade unions and the major attraction of them in winning membership. In addition to the legal restrictions on collective bargaining and terms of employment, and contributing to the formulation of various macro policies, the British trade unions also played a central and direct role in industrial relations as the labor force user in the public service sectors. Collective bargaining in the UK had the following characteristics. First, collective bargaining at the enterprise level dominated the employment market. Second, collective bargaining was more voluntary and collective agreements were not legally binding. Moreover, the unions had the right to exempt from rights, and the coverage of collective bargaining and collective contracts was rather small. The UK did not have a specific employment contract law, the legal department to adjust the employment contract relationship is mainly case law. Conventions played an important role in employment law in the UK. In the practice of relations between employers and employees, the UK had always emphasized the principle of customs and cases (CIPD, 2017).

In the 21st century, the employment relations are changing to a mode of voluntarism with unilateralism. The role of the trade unions is much weaker than before. Employers’ wage determination is manly through unilateral regulations. The collective bargaining coverage was down to 31%. The industry-wide bargaining disappeared and more unilateral decisions are made by firms. More wage determination happens in the public sector and occupies 67.8% and those in the private sector have been declining to 16.7%. The trade union density dropped to 26%, and in 2011 there were only 6.4 million union members. Only 92 days were lost to strikes, which was about 4% compared to the 1970s.

The core of globalization and neoliberalism is the globalization of economy and capital. It has profoundly changed the modes of production in various countries in the world and promoted the optimization of the global resource allocation and economic development. In terms of employment relations, the greatest impact of globalization is to make the pattern of weak labor and strong capital stronger and more obvious.

The changes in the industrial structure brought about by globalization have had a huge impact on the industrial relations in the UK, and the strength of the trade unions has weakened greatly. First, globalization has brought the globalization of the labor market. As a result of the acceleration of the industrial restructuring in the UK, some domestic labor-intensive industries have been accelerated to be transferred to low-cost developing countries, resulting in the loss of markets and jobs. The manufacturing industry in the UK has always played an important role in the national economy, and for a long time manufacturing workers have been the dominant force in the British working class. However, globalization has led to a drastic reduction in the number of jobs created by the manufacturing industry in the UK, and the number of trade unions has dropped by half. The point of economic growth in Britain has shifted from manufacturing to service industries. The rate of unionization and collective bargaining in service trade unions has been at a low level, which makes the union activities more difficult (Vaitilingam, 2016). Under such circumstances, the system of collective bargaining has naturally been suppressed. Wages and benefits of workers also fell as state capital flowed to developing countries with lower labor costs.

In addition, under the background of globalization, the political parties in the UK also get involved in the enhancement of the employers’ power. In order to secure the capital support, the political parties have to assess the employers' interests in the formulation of economic policies. Whichever party had risen to power in the government, they would have to keep this situation to maintain the support. As a result, the government has loosened the regulations on the employers economically, and gave full freedom to capital to compete and let the market play a leading role. In terms of labor relations, the government renounced the traditional principle of labor-capital cooperation and began to limit the rights of trade unions to weaken the power of them. In formulating the labor policy, the government announced the unlawful strike of the trade unions and the promulgation of the national minimum wage bill, which all increased the rights of employers to a certain extent. In this context, the role played by the market in industrial relations is getting bigger and bigger, so the unilateral regulations of the UK are gradually increasing.

Works cited

CIPD. (2017). Employment regulation in the UK: burden or benefit? Championing better work and working lives survey report, May.

Romesh Vaitilingam. (2016). Human Resources, the Labour Market and Economic Performance. Manpower human resource lab, September.

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