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Japan's conservative two-party system

2019-04-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Japan's conservative two-party system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了日本的保守两党制。冷战结束后,以建立保守两党制为目标的新型保守政党逐渐崛起。其中的新进党和民主党在构建日本竞争性政党政治格局中起着极为重要的作用,两党在本质上丝毫没有淡化保守主义政治理念。与传统保守政党的根本区别是,两党始终将推动政治改革、政权更迭和实现保守两党制模式等作为立党宗旨。

conservative two-party system,日本保守两党制,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The realization of the conservative two-party system is an idea put forward by ozawa and other conservative politicians. But the idea has not worked out well. After the establishment of the new progressive party, it formed a confrontation pattern with the liberal Democratic Party, but this pattern was soon disintegrated due to the defeat of the new progressive party in the 1996 general election. In the 1998 upper house election, the liberal Democratic Party was defeated by the liberal Democratic Party and the Democratic Party was defeated by the Democratic Party. In 2003, the merger of the Democratic Party and the liberal party and the reduction of seats of the Japanese communist party and the social Democratic Party objectively promoted the formation of the pattern of the two major political parties. The Democratic Party of Japan won the house election in 2009, bringing about the political transition between the democratic and democratic parties, which became a major turning point in Japan's post-war politics.

After the end of the cold war, with the disintegration of the "1955 system" in which conservative parties confronted with innovative parties, a new type of conservative party with the goal of establishing a conservative two-party system emerged. Among them, the new progressive party and the Democratic Party of Japan successively played an extremely important role in constructing the competitive party political pattern in Japan. In essence, the two parties have not weakened the conservative political ideas at all. The fundamental difference between the two parties and traditional conservative parties is that they always take the promotion of political reform, regime change and the realization of the conservative two-party system as the party's purpose. Their conception and practice of the conservative two-party system in Japan have completely changed the party political structure and pattern in Japan since the second world war and are exerting a profound influence on the political development of Japan in the 21st century.

Political parties are inseparable from the parliamentary system and the electoral system, which is an important bridge between the government and citizens and the main form of "political democracy". In other words, political parties, as a power subject in bourgeois democracy, play and maintain their political roles through continuous fierce elections. "In Japan, the monopoly bourgeoisie, the chaebol manipulate the election, control the parliament, control the legislation, and hold the power of the government, usually through political parties." In the "1955 system" period, the "conservative" and "innovative" political forces represented by the liberal Democratic Party and the socialist party formed a confrontation situation corresponding to the cold war pattern at that time, and this political mechanics maintained the super-stable situation of Japanese politics. The "1955 system" is an "asymmetric" opposition formed according to the ideological orientation of political parties. Conservative parties have always existed as the ruling party, while innovative parties have long been in the opposition of non-ruling parties. They can only supervise the government and contain the activities of the ruling party, which is called the "opposition party for thousands of years". In fact, the "1955 system" is the unique pattern of Japanese party politics in which conservative parties remain in power for a long time and innovative parties remain in opposition for a long time.

With the end of the cold war between the east and the west, Japan's domestic political situation began to change, and the old opposition between "conservative" and "innovative" due to ideological division gradually disappeared, which not only changed the basic political structure of the "1955 system", but also launched Japan's overall conservative process. After the LDP fell in 1993, Japan's opposition parties had a chance to govern. In addition to the communist party, the socialist party, the new komeito party and the social Democratic Party all entered the multi-party coalition regime. The traditional opposition forces gradually dissolve the policy boundary with the conservative party while realizing the ruling desire. In particular, on some domestic policies, the differences between the government and the opposition are narrowing and the opinions are converging, which in fact leads to the expansion of conservative political forces. At the same time, with the establishment of Japan's status as an economic power, people's living standards have been improved correspondingly, and the middle class has been expanding continuously. Japanese society has shown the trend of "life conservatism", and people generally agree with the economic prosperity brought by the ruling of conservative parties and hope to maintain a stable political situation. This kind of political consciousness is the carrier of Japanese politics in general.

However, while Japanese society agrees with the conservative political line of the liberal Democratic Party, it is disgusted with the serious corruption caused by its "golden power politics". Therefore, the neoconservative forces represented by ichiro ozawa, once the powerful figure of the LDP, began to plan "political restructuring" and advocate "political reform". "So what is the political system that ozawa envisions? He himself had a very direct answer: 'with political reform... Trying to create a two-party system... 'and' stronger leaders must be established among them. He articulated the need for a us-style, efficient "two-party conservative system". This is the self-improvement and self-abandonment of Japan's conservative forces. It is an innovation of the concept of abandoning the "1955 system" which is no longer suitable for the development of The Times and seeking to explore Japan's brand-new political party model.

The so-called conservative two-party system refers to the political system in which two evenly matched parties representing different interest groups of the bourgeoisie confront each other and take turns to take power through the victory of parliamentary elections or presidential elections. Usually, in the regular elections, the two parties compete for each other. Among them, the party that controls the majority of seats in the parliament ACTS as the supreme representative of the interests of the bourgeoisie, organizes the government, and exercises state power. The party that loses an election is called an opposition party, an opposition party, or a non-ruling party. This is exactly the conservative "two-party confrontation" or "two-party competition system" that ozawa aspires to establish in his 1993 book "Japan reform plan", to replace the "two-party confrontation" mode of the conservative and innovative two different parties under the "1955 system". Considered itself as the "reformists" ichiro ozawa believes that after the end of the cold war, Japan's political system to change in the past, the first thing to change under the condition of the cold war form of traditional party politics, change the ruling and opposition parties long-term status quo mechanics of political relations, realize from confrontation "leather" to "bao bao united" the transition of political party system, establish the real conservative two-party system.

Ozawa, who takes the realization of the conservative two-party system as his political ideal, pointed out in "innovative politics" : "it is impossible to carry out reform under the national character and national conditions of Japan without accumulating strength and energy within the system. So, as far as possible, among the people who have been supporting the system, expand the number of people who have the same reform aspirations, or the same understanding, and use that strength to turn to reform together. A coalition of like-minded neoconservative parties would form a powerful new one. But the establishment of a new conservative party with a majority in parliament is not Mr Ozawa's ultimate political ideal. Because, "as the international situation changed, Japan came under external pressure. Recognizing the severity of external pressure and hoping to establish a political system capable of responding and dealing with it effectively are the most fundamental foundation of ozawa's political reform proposals. "One of the main themes of political reform," he says, "is the establishment of a new system in which the prime minister literally rules and leads politics." Because "the tendency of the world today is for leaders to speak more and more. Because in modern world politics, the leader's personality is of great significance. To that end, Mr Ozawa has made clear that Japan needs a conservative two-party system to ensure that politicians dominate domestic and foreign affairs. Because "Japan has become a world power" and "cannot escape its role as a great power", Japan has the obligation to "contribute to the world" and become an "ordinary country" equal to other developed countries. It can be said that ozawa's political conception of realizing the conservative two-party system internally and "ordinary country" externally in the Japan reform plan is not only the political pursuit of the Japanese neoconservative forces, but also reflects the ideological trend of Japan's political reform after the cold war. "The Times call for a renewal of Japan's closed society," the commentary in the Japanese media said, so the onus as leader of the ruling and opposition parties "is greater than ever for politicians."

Ozawa, who takes "political reform" as his mission, believes that to reform the current political system as soon as possible, "political reform must be based on the majority decision and the political parties' policy disputes to promote politics". Ozawa in "Japan reform plan", a comprehensive elaboration of his governing philosophy. He advocated changing the administrative system dominated by bureaucrats, implementing the reform of the electoral system and promoting the establishment of a conservative two-party system. He believed that the current political system was still established in the cold war environment, and it must be reformed, and it must be freed from the "irresponsible politics" of the clientelism and non-competitive party system to realize the true conservative two-party system. With the defeat of the LDP and the socialists, the two main parties in the "1955 system", the new party and the new generation and forerunners, which split from the LDP, won. Taking this as a starting point, Japan's party politics has entered a new historical stage. "The realization of the 'two-party system' has been ozawa's political ideal and goal for many years, and this pursuit is in line with the majority of the national views on the changing direction of the political party system model", and has also been highly concerned by political scholars. "The change in Japanese politics is a gradual move towards the goal of a 'two-party system,'" one scholar said. On the way to achieve the two major conservative party system, seiji maehara, a representative of the democratic youth faction, made it clear that: "to create the possibility of regime change with the goal of two major party politics, our first task is to have the power. And Mr Ozawa, kan, hatoyama and katsuya okada, the Democratic Party's core, as early as the summer of 1993, established the pursuit of "regime alternation" big goals, specific the LDP coalition of hosokawa and haneda cabinet disintegration of experiment, the new frontier party struggle with the defeated, the rise of democratic development phase, the forces of the liberal Democratic Party restructuring of polymerization has been through more than ten years. It can be said that the rise of new conservative parties, such as the new progressive party and the Democratic Party of Japan, means that the conservative forces in the Japanese political party structure increase greatly, which leads to a qualitative change in the Japanese political party structure, and forms the political ecological environment in which the Japanese political situation evolves to the conservative two-party system.

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