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American homeschooling

2019-04-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American homeschooling,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的家庭学校教育。现代的家庭学校教育诞生于20世纪的家庭学校运动,经过几十年的发展,美国的家庭学校教育呈现出原因多样化、规模扩大化、实践丰富化、管理规范化的特征。目前,在美国各州家庭学校都是合法的,但是美国教育实行的是联邦、州和地方三级分权管理的教育行政管理体制,所以州和地方具有极大的自主权。

homeschooling,美国家庭学校教育,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

American family school education teaching activities can be traced back to the colonial family, modern family education schools in the '50 s and' 60 s of the 20th century "homeschool movement", after half a century of development, the development of the school education presents the reasons for American families diversification, scale expansion and enrichment of practice, the characteristics of the management standardization.

On November 3, 2012, at the first global conference on homeschooling held in Berlin, Germany, practitioners of homeschooling jointly signed the Berlin declaration. In August 2014, the international symposium on "learning at home: homeschooling -- multiple education" hosted by the 21st century education research institute was held in Beijing, and participants reached consensus on the issue of "homeschooling". Under the trend of globalization, home-school education groups in different countries have more and more communication and mutual influence. American family school education is one of the countries with the largest scale of development. The analysis of the development and characteristics of American family school education can be used for reference and inspiration to other countries, especially China.

Family school education evolved on the basis of family education and has deep historical origin. As early as the American colonies, parents were responsible for educating their children in literacy, arithmetic, and basic life skills and religious knowledge. With the public school movement and the enactment of the compulsory education act, home schooling became a violation of the compulsory education law in most states. Parents who refused to send their children to school or obstructed the implementation of the compulsory education law were punished by fines or imprisonment until they sent their children to school. But some parents still insist on home schooling and have gone underground to avoid official accountability.

It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that covert home schoolers began to go out and form groups with other home schoolers, and together with the advocacy and support of progressive and religious conservative education reformers and social organizations, promoted the rise of the "home school movement". In the 1960s, the "home school movement" was largely supported by radical reformers and attracted new parents from the counterculture. After the failure of the "war on poverty" in the United States, the public became increasingly disappointed with the school education, and there emerged the "derogatory school movement" which strongly attacked the school. Known as the "father of the homeschooling movement," John holt started out as a school proselytizer, went on to advocate "free schooling," and eventually moved to encourage parents to educate their children at home instead of at school. "I used to talk about reforming schools," holt said. "then I talked about starting my own school. Now I talk about getting kids out of school altogether." After the 1970s, religious right-wingers who focused on religious and moral beliefs became the main group to promote the "home school movement". Before "homeschool movement" rise, some devout religious school education, family has been in practice more couples are early family school education practitioners and advocates, they to the results of the study reveals the disadvantages of school education for many years, think early to accept the school education is bad for the healthy growth of children, they also sum up the experiences of home school education and puts forward the famous Moore formula, even now is still the most family school education practitioners of introductory guide books.

With the development of "family school movement", the practice group of family school education gradually increases, but family school education is still in a marginalized state, and it is still illegal to carry out family school education in many states, and the public also regards it as heresy. Thus, beginning in the late 1970s, proponents and practitioners of homeschool began to fight for the right to homeschool, culminating in the legalization of homeschool in all 50 states in 1993. Although the legal and regulatory issues related to home schooling are still highly controversial in the United States, the practice group of home schooling has expanded rapidly since the 1990s. According to the national education data center, in the 2011-2012 school year, 1.77 million students were home-schooled, accounting for 3.4% of the national school-age population. The Numbers are conservative, and the number of k-12 homeschool students reached 2.04 million in 2010, according to the American academy of family education. At present, home schooling has become a legal and optional form of education besides public and private schools, and has exerted an important influence on various fields of American society.

After half a century of development, home schooling in the United States has not only gained legal status in law, but also been accepted and recognized by more and more American public, thus achieving rapid development in the United States. In the process of development, American family school education has remarkable characteristics in the aspects of selection reason, development scale, practice process and supervision measures.

Gustetson was one of the first scholars to study the reasons for choosing home schooling. He found that the main reason why parents choose home schooling is ideological. They want to build close parent-child relationship and pay more attention to the moral health and character development of their children. Galen later attributed the reasons for choosing home schooling to the two categories of education and ideology. Mayberry and Knowles divided the reasons for parents to choose home schooling into four categories: religious, social, academic and new era. In 1999-2011, the United States center for education statistics survey provides a school environment, teaching, moral or religious education, the teaching method is different, the special needs of children, mental or physical problems, such as multiple choice, the result shows: the concern about the school environment and religious or moral education has been the main reason of the family school choice, at the same time, the results of the survey also shows that different parents will choose home schooling based on different reasons, the same parents choose home schooling also often shows the characteristics of diversified comprehensive a variety of reasons. The increasingly elaborate and complex classification of the reasons for choosing family schools in the research also indirectly reflects this diversified feature.

In the United States, since the "homeschool movement", the group of homeschool has developed from a small number of scattered and unconnected practitioners to a population of about 2 million. At present, almost every family that chooses homeschool will join at least one support organization for homeschool education. In general, the number of families practicing family schooling in the United States is growing. Families choosing family schooling are mostly distributed in rural and urban suburbs, generally white families, families with religious beliefs, families with many children, families with certain economic ability and relatively high level of education. But the number of other types of families choosing homeschool is also growing. For example, the number of black, Muslim and other minority families attending homeschool has also increased rapidly in recent years. The survey also showed that homeschooled students account for an increasing proportion of the total school-age population at the same grade level as they move up. For example, in the 2011-2012 school year, 3.1% of k-2 students were home-schooled, 3.4% in grades 3-5, 3.5% in grades 6-8, and 3.7% in grades 9-12%. According to the NHERI study, about three-quarters of adults who were home-schooled and are now adults said they would choose home schooling to educate their own children. As a result, the size of the home-school population will grow exponentially and continue to expand.

It is not easy to practise home schooling. In the preparatory stage, the rich characteristics of home schooling have been shown. First of all, the choice of home school not only changes the place where children receive education and the way of learning, but also means the whole family life is different. For example, parents' work may need to be adjusted, and family income and expenditure may need to be replanned. In the face of family members, relatives and neighbors' incomprehension, even opposition and criticism, this contradiction may need to be reconciled. In order to make home-school education develop smoothly, it is necessary to join a local home-school support organization, communicate with experienced practitioners, understand the state and school district's laws and policies on home-school education, determine the education concept, practice plan and other preparatory work. Secondly, in practice, richness is also reflected in the selection of courses and textbooks, the formulation of curriculum plans, the selection of teaching methods and means, the arrangement of teaching time, testing and evaluation and other links. The content, progress and speed of each link can be flexibly adjusted according to the needs, interests and abilities of each student, instead of taking the level of most students as the standard. Every child, parent, and family is different, and the practices of homeschool vary from highly organized, school-like to completely unschooled, or from eclectic to more family-friendly, and so on. The computer is the most valuable tool for home schooling. Many home-school websites and institutions provide "one-stop" services, such as time4learning website, Oak Meadow Curriculum website, etc. Parents and students can flexibly carry out home teaching according to the courses and teaching resources provided by the website. In addition, online courses, online open classes and curtain classes offered by online schools, public or private schools and universities also provide a platform for home-school learners. Third, the family school group exchange and the social practice enrichment. Network for home school practitioners provide great convenience of teaching and learning at the same time, also enrich the communication between the family school community, parents can use facebook, email, BBS, blog, website, such as exchange experience, support each other, to form cooperative groups, and even the extension of the communication to real life, the formation of family support groups, to carry out social practice activities, events, and so on. Family school students have more time to do all kinds of activities, such as travel, sports, sports activities, boy scouts, church activities and part-time work, community, and volunteer service, the performing arts and other projects, they are not only complete socialization in these activities, also make their own learning and life experience more rich.

At present, family schools are legal in every state in the United States, but the education system in the United States is an educational administrative management system with three levels of federal, state and local decentralized management. The state and local governments have great autonomy, so the supervision and management of family schools are different in each state. According to the home school legal defense association, a nonprofit organization that advocates home schooling, the states are divided into four levels according to the degree of tightness of national regulations on home schools: 10 "unregulated" states, 15 "low-regulated" states, 20 "moderately regulated" states, and 6 "highly regulated" states. There has been much debate in the United States about the regulation of homeschool, with proponents of "deregulation" and opponents and skeptics of homeschool arguing for more regulation. In recent years, federal and state laws, as well as local governments, have reconciled the debate, introducing bills and policies to regulate home-schooling. In 2005, for example, senator larry Craig of Idaho introduced the "no discrimination against home-schoolers act," which aims to put home-schoolers on an equal footing with other students in scholarships, grants, grants and other government subsidies. Cupertino, calif., offers a $1,000 fee account to parents enrolled in the district's independent program, and the school receives $3,000 per child from the government. Some school districts have set up a new department of "family school". The school district regularly assigns professional teachers to organize family school educators to exchange experience. The teacher will evaluate the implementation of previous teaching tasks and provide guidance for the next stage of teaching, which is welcomed by parents. Other states or agencies have programs such as the home schooling program, the Chicago management program, and the effective skills program for parents in Detroit.

In addition, the support system of American family school also presents the characteristics of perfection. In addition to the legal and governmental support for family school through standardized management, community, church, civil society and social and network resources all promote the healthy and sustainable development of American family school education. The education effect of family school is remarkable, the students of family school are no less than the students of public school or private school in both academic level and socialization level.

Since the "family school movement" movement, modern American family school education has developed rapidly. It has not only gained legal status in law, but also been accepted and recognized by more and more American public, and has formed the characteristics of diversified reasons, enlarged scale, enriched practice and standardized management. The characteristics are not isolated from each other. Diversified factors promote more and more parents and children to choose home schooling as a new mode of education and lifestyle, thus expanding the group size of home schooling. Family school groups are formed and organized to exchange experience with each other, which enriches the practice of family school education. Meanwhile, the family school groups with different styles and different scales promote the laws and governments to regulate family schools within the legal scope, so as to guarantee children's right to education and quality of education. These characteristics restrict and influence each other, which promotes the orderly and rapid development of family school education in the United States.

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