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The characteristics of the British political party system

2019-03-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The characteristics of the British political party system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国政党制度的特点。如今,政党政治已经成为当今世界最为普遍的政治统治和政治管理形式。英国是现代政党政治的发源地,也是实行两党制的典型国家,其政党政治运行较为公开和规范。政党政治是通过执政党和反对党的相互争斗发挥出来的。在英国,反对党拥有法定的地位,是宪法的一个组成部分。

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Party politics has become the most popular form of political rule and management in the world. Britain is the birthplace of modern party politics and a typical country with a two-party system. Britain is a country with more developed and mature party politics, and the operation of party politics is more open and normative. In recent years, British party politics has continued to develop steadily, showing some new trends.

Party politics in Britain has experienced a long-term development process, and the constitutional monarchy reflects each other, and has formed many characteristics of the country's political parties.

According to the fixed procedure to come to power, the ruling party is in a solid position. The influence of British party politics is so great that it is impossible for any candidate to win without the help of the party. Traditionally, the contest for a candidate in a general election is not primarily a personal contest, but actually a partisan contest. Whether a candidate is elected depends on the overall performance of the party he represents. This was especially obvious before the World War II, when the public did not know who would be the prime minister before the election results, and the personal charm and ability of political leaders began to highlight after the World War II. Taking part in the general election and winning it is the first step for any British political party to seek the position of governing. After the general election, the winning party becomes the majority party in the parliament, which gives the party the basic conditions for coming to power. The majority leader, backed by a majority in parliament, accepted the king's invitation to become prime minister and form a new cabinet. The formation of a cabinet authorized by the king is the hallmark of a political party. Because of the radical party politics in Britain, all members of the cabinet are party members. The basic formula for a political party to come to power is "go to the general election -- get parliamentary support -- form a cabinet". Although these three steps are not explicitly stipulated in the British constitution and laws, in the eyes of the British people, to violate this procedure is tantamount to violating the constitution and laws. As the ruling party holds the majority of seats in the parliament, the policy is easy to be passed and cannot be overthrown, so the ruling position is firm. Only when the election is held again will there be a change of parties.

The power of the cabinet is greater and its influence is extensive. This is mainly manifested in three aspects. First, the cabinet plays an important role in social life. Britain is a "unity of opinion and action" country, which means that the central state organs and local authorities are unified. In this case, as long as the ruling party wins the general election, it will be able to fully control British politics. The main performance is that the winning party forms the government. In the British constitutional system, the cabinet has irreplaceable political authority. According to the constitution and laws, the cabinet is the core of the government, the organization and leading organ of British society, and the decision-making center of the state. In modern society, the role of government in the development of economy and social management is increasingly prominent, and the UK is no exception. Cabinet influence has penetrated into all aspects of society in the UK. Second, the ruling party controls and manipulates the parliament. The ruling party's control of legislation is mainly through the parliamentary caucus and coordinated action. Although parliament is the highest legislature in the UK in law, its members are all partisan and act collectively in the name of parties, so the parliamentary caucus in the parliament is of vital importance. In order to coordinate the activities of their own party members in parliament, the British political parties have set strict party discipline rules. Party members and lawmakers who violate party discipline, especially the ruling party, will be severely punished. In general, the most severe punishment for a member of parliament is expulsion. In Britain, where party politics are mature and developed, expulsion is equivalent to the end of a politician's political life. Party discipline is enforced and supervised by party bosses. In general, the cabinet can enable both houses of parliament to pass their own bills, because the ruling party can form a cabinet and control the majority of parliament. Accordingly, the British parliament has been described as the body which "passes laws" rather than "makes them". For the opposition, parliament is at best a forum for expression and venting. Of course, the opposition can question the prime minister, but that will not affect the final vote. Britain's judicial system remains somewhat independent. However, the ruling party in Britain can also use its special political status and power to exert influence on judicial activities. The fundamental reason is that the ruling party still controls the parliament. First, the constitutional principle of "parliamentary supremacy" enables parliament to define the structure and functions of the judiciary and to pass substantive and procedural laws. In addition, Britain does not have a Supreme Court, so the British parliament has the highest power of review, which also provides a way for the ruling party to exert influence. Second, Britain's senior judicial officers are nominated and appointed by a cabinet headed by the prime minister. Therefore, the ruling party always appoints capable senior party leaders to serve as the chief justice, and coordinates the country's judicial activities with the policies of the ruling party through the chief justice.

Party politics is played out through the struggle between the ruling party and the opposition party. In Britain, opposition parties have legal standing and are an integral part of the constitution. The title "his majesty's loyal opposition party" indicates that the opposition party is part of the British national institutions and plays a unique role. The British opposition party, like the ruling party, has a tight organization and strict discipline. It is her majesty's alternative government, and its leader is also the prime minister. The leader of the opposition is paid a yearly stipend from a fixed fund, and the state provides funds for the activities of the opposition. If the queen calls a meeting, he sits side by side with the prime minister. Britain's largest opposition party has the habit of forming a "shadow cabinet", so it is called "shadow cabinet", because it is not a real cabinet, but an illusory cabinet like a shadow. This "shadow cabinet" has two functions. One is to constantly exert political pressure on the ruling party and supervise and restrict the policies and behaviors of the ruling party. In the event of another unexpected collapse of the ruling party, the "shadow cabinet" can immediately fill the political vacuum and come to power. In order to maintain the ruling position, the ruling party attaches great importance to the role of "shadow cabinet".

More than 20 million national and local newspapers and magazines are published in the UK every day, meaning that every two people in Britain who can read must buy a newspaper or magazine. In the UK, mass media enjoy an independent status with wide coverage of information and high operational efficiency, and have a team of practitioners with a sense of social responsibility. By creating public opinions, they cause psychological pressure on the subjects exercising power. These mass media often conduct social surveys and have a large amount of social information, so that sometimes the British government will consult the mass media on major social issues and emergencies. The political statements of some authoritative media have a great impact on party politics. Major television stations and newspapers have set up columns to discuss and publish political news and scandals. Any illegal activities of the ruling party can easily be exposed by the mass media, triggering a political earthquake.

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