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Medieval England

2019-01-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Medieval England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中世纪英格兰城市。中世纪城市发展的过程与原因紧密相连,但其工商业占主导的特征始终没有改变。商业发展所引起的远程贸易导致了中世纪城市的复兴,北海、波罗的海贸易区与地中海贸易区的联系使得欧洲大陆出现了大量的城市,英格兰也不例外地受到了这些影响。城市是作为乡村的对立物出现的,城市出现的前提是生产的发展,以及社会关系的复杂化,特别是社会分工的发展催生了城市的诞生。在这些史实的背后不能忽略的是现代文明的载体即中世纪城市,可以说现代英国诞生的基础是中世纪的城市,其崛起也与中世纪英格兰的城市有着密不可分的关系。

Medieval England,中世纪英格兰城市,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

This assignment will not discuss the disputes about the concepts of "middle ages", "England" and "city". According to the historical staging theory commonly used in the academic circle at the present stage, "the middle ages" refers to the period from the 5th to the 15th century, before the opening of new sea routes and after the fall of the western Roman empire. As for the concept of "city", Marx once said: the city itself shows the concentration of population, production tools, capital, enjoyment and demand; the opposite is seen in the countryside: isolation and fragmentation. Cities emerge as the opposite of villages. The premise of cities is the development of production and the complication of social relations. In particular, the development of social division of labor gives birth to cities. Simply put, the countryside is responsible for agricultural production and the supply of daily necessities such as food, while the cities provide other things that cannot be produced in the countryside through trade.

Many theories about the origin of medieval cities, such as "Roman origin theory", "gilt theory", "marke theory" and "privilege theory", can be referred to professor liu jinghua's theories and comments on the origin of medieval cities in Western Europe. This assignment mainly agrees with the views of "Roman origin theory", "privilege theory" and "commercial origin theory". Although other views have some rationality, this assignment believes that these three views can represent the theories on the origin of medieval cities. For example, the origin of Rome, after the decline of the Roman empire, the Roman cities almost disappeared, but some of them still existed. The cities of the 5th to 8th centuries are mainly relics of Roman cities. In the 8th and 9th centuries, feudalism gradually emerged in Western Europe. At this time, there was no landless jurisdiction in Western Europe, and the rise of cities was also based on these lands. Records of medieval cities show that the names of some cities are similar to those of ancient Roman cities, and some names of Roman times also appear in medieval cities. In addition, it can be derived from the feudalism in Western Europe as a product of the Roman era, so as to draw the conclusion that "medieval cities developed on the basis of Roman cities and were their direct descendants". The "privilege theory" is easier to understand. The king or Lord establishes a new city to attract people to live in and gives the residents certain rights to build a new city. The reason for this is similar to that ancient Chinese cities were mainly influenced by politics. However, the medieval lords in Western Europe established cities on the one hand to expand their spheres of influence, and on the other hand to make profits in the newly built cities. "Business origin theory" is the main representative of the Belgian historians Henry pyrrhon, its main ideas for business development caused by long-distance trade led to the revival of the medieval city, the north sea, the Baltic trade area and makes for continental Europe, the Mediterranean trade area appeared a lot of cities, England is no exception to those affected.

Generally speaking, handicraft industry belongs to the urban industry, but in the pre-industrial revolution era, many types of handicraft industry belong to the countryside, such as quarrying, mining, mills, textiles and so on. Because this kind of production required power support and a lot of labor, and in the early medieval period, the rural economy was the manor economy, and all the necessities of life were produced within the manor and had no connection with other industries of production, even though there was some other handicraft production at that time. With the development of urban commerce, the urban interior began to produce the daily necessities needed by some citizens. At the same time, food was obtained from the surrounding countryside, or by the emerging merchant class through long-distance trade, and then resold to the urban citizens in need. The artisans who produced articles for daily use included some foods and luxuries that satisfied the urban aristocracy, such as goldsmiths, bakers, butchers, tanners, tanners, and blacksmiths. In Cambridge economic history of Europe, edited by postan, he also divided Europe's medieval cities into the following categories: cities that conducted long-distance trade; A city that is both a center of consumption and a center of production. They are mainly consumer cities, namely political, military and religious centers, and university cities as cultural centers. The inhabitants of the city were still mainly engaged in agriculture, but the Lord, either because he wanted to turn the place into a fortified stronghold or because he wanted to give it freedom, gave it the legal status of a city.

Norman poundes, a famous American historian, also believed that the most important functions of cities and towns were handicraft and commerce. Medieval cities also had other functions, such as protecting themselves in a hostile world, services such as money, spiritual comfort for the majority of the population, and even the cultivation of the surrounding land, all played a role in urban life, but handicraft and commerce were always there, and without them there would be no city. With the increasing importance of cities... They were political and religious centres, meeting places for courts, parliaments, magistrates and bishops. They are the focus of economic life, where agricultural products are bought and sold and, despite the growing importance of rural industry, their raw materials have to be purchased in cities, where their products are processed and sold locally. The city is also the social and cultural center of the country. It is in cities that rents and other income from land are spent. It can be seen that the city is not only a place to live, its functions include economy, politics, religion and many other characteristics.

Political function of the city reflected in the establishment of the city government or management organization, the development of government form a counterpart and is closely related to urban nobles, their wealth from trade - is not a small shopkeepers and manual craftsmen, but a large trade, trade wool, wool, or spices from a far country or foreign imports of goods, and the goods in the international grand bazaar. They control the rules of the guilds, run the guilds in which they have a stake, take risks unimaginable to ordinary guilds, reap huge rewards, and take responsibility for all aspects of the city.

In 1696, when Gregory king listed the size of English cities, he included towns with 150 to 200 houses, or at least 600 people. Clark and pat and others largely agree. But that doesn't mean that all the places with more than 600 people are cities. It depends on whether it has a special economic function for the neighbourhood, whether as a market centre, a service centre, or an industrial centre, to bring part of rural life into its sphere of influence, forcing the inhabitants of the four townships to visit its bazaars, its shops, and its standards of measurement. At the same time, the city, as a market and distribution center, is based on the improvement of agricultural specialization level of its hinterland and the growth of consumer demand. That is to say, its establishment and development are to meet the social and economic needs of the vast rural hinterland, reflecting the prosperity and development of agricultural production. However, in the process of development, the city is bound to conflict with the countryside, such as "the impact of urban economy on the countryside". However, the development of the city cannot do without the support and market of the surrounding countryside. Only after it is separated from the agricultural society and closely linked with the surrounding countryside, can the city gradually transform the surrounding countryside into the economic territory of the city, then the city can obtain the permanent foundation of stable development and prosperity, and effectively collapse and destroy the old structure of the rural society with its economic advantages. Different cities are faced with different urban-rural relations, resulting in different characteristics. Some cities rely entirely on the surrounding countryside to provide food, such as the British city of burford, while others rely on remote trade to obtain wealth and food. And some also take the grain trade as its main business, such as the Italian industrial and commercial city, the German hanseatic city, the port city of the Netherlands and so on.

The so-called "transformation period" refers to the transformation from the traditional agricultural society to the modern industrial society, which can also be said to be the transformation from the feudal society to the capitalist society. The real meaning of "modern" is to achieve capitalist industrialization and urbanization. There are many reasons for the rise of Britain in modern times, including mercantilism, industrial revolution, overseas trade and colonial exploration. This assignment holds that the basis of national development is the city. The most dazzling city in medieval Britain was London, and the relationship between London and British development can be reflected in the business network. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the British domestic commercial network was gradually formed around London. London imports goods from abroad, in addition to the capital for consumption, but also by the coast and inland road to the ports of the counties, and then transshipment to the mainland. The port clerk of 1585-1586 said that the goods shipped from London to the counties were mainly food, drink, raw materials, finished goods... In terms of raw materials, both materials imported from London from overseas and materials from the counties brought from the coast were redistributed through London. Apart from London, there are other port cities that feed the domestic business network. According to the tariff recorded in the books, the important ports have 15, they are in Boston, Bristol, bridge walter, Manchester, Exeter, hull, ipswich, Lynn, London, s&p, Newcastle, Plymouth, sandwich, Southampton and Portsmouth, each port as a unit, for countries to provide the vast wealth.

In the late middle ages, some cities declined due to the revocation of concessions, the change of development direction, or the reason of war, and gradually disappeared in the earlier period, such as Nottingham, Lincoln and york in England, which all had crises. York city went into decline from the mid-15th century. In 1395, york exported 3,200 pieces of woolen cloth, but by the 1970s, the average annual export was only 922 pieces. Its population fell from more than 12, 000 in the early 15th century to about 8, 000 in the mid-16th century. The essence of the urban crisis is the feudal crisis, and the feudal relations of production are on the verge of collapse again. In the 15th and 16th centuries, most of the cities in Britain experienced crises, and some of them began to transform into commercialization, openness and specialization, such as st. nuitz in huntington county and tuxbury in gloucestershire, etc., fully opening up a variety of business fields. At the same time, commercial exchanges between London, local cities and small and medium-sized towns are strengthened. As discussed above, London promotes the development of other cities to some extent. Declining cities reorient their development and downsize their operations to form their own characteristics, such as the "new cloth" produced in Norwich and the port trade in Bristol. At the same time, new cities were born, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and so on. With the progress of technology, they developed rapidly relying on mineral resources development.

Is the inner motive power of modern British rise business, commercial to promote modernization, and the commercial operation of the merchants living in cities, although some stage capital city to the countryside, but the urban economy as a whole will undoubtedly play a more important role, whether it is commodity production or remote trade have created great wealth to the nation, and even some king on the merchant's loans to run the country.

As far as commercial organizations in cities are concerned, a large amount of historical data has long shown that the guilds in western European countries have changed their organizational forms with the continuous improvement of productivity. The general development trend of British guilds is as follows: the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century were the heyday of merchant guilds; In the second half of the 13th century and the 14th century, it was dominated by the handicraft industry. From the 15th century onwards, guilds entered the urban economy. Foreign trade companies, such as the Moscow company, the east India company, and the east India company, which were founded by the great merchants of the union, acquired wealth for the state. The core of most companies is the London merchant, and London's position as an English city is unassailable. In the process of rising, the state undoubtedly supported the establishment of these companies, gave concessions to them, and tried to help them expand trade diplomatically. During the reign of Elizabeth I, the queen even used pirates to curb the economic activities of her rivals Spain and the Netherlands. This connection enabled the individual businessmen to obtain considerable wealth, and also won greater benefits for the country, not only economically, but also laid a solid foundation for the rise of Britain politically.

In short, the social economy of England in the 16th century was at the beginning of a profound transformation. The result of this change was the rapid rise of Britain's national strength and its gradual rise. Relying on the powerful productivity of the industrial revolution, Britain became the "world factory" and dominated the world. Behind these historical facts is the carrier of modern civilization, namely the medieval city. It can be said that the foundation of the birth of modern Britain is the medieval city, whose rise is also closely related to the cities of medieval England.


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