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The aristocracy of English history

2018-12-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The aristocracy of English history,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国历史中的贵族。英国贵族的诞生源于一千多年前,以国王为首的阶层被人们认为贵族,具有军事贵族的特点。到了6世纪,随着宗教的发展,不列颠就形成了世俗贵族与宗教贵族关存的体制,贵族群体中融入了宗教的色彩。到了10世纪,有了大贵族,即地方统治者。到了11世纪前期,大贵族伯爵与普通中下贵族塞恩的等级差别才终于明朗化。在英国政治体制的变化过程中,无论是议会的形成、殖民地的掠夺,还是工业革命,可以说英国的贵族群体起了非常重要的作用。


The British aristocracy originated more than a thousand years ago. The class headed by the king was regarded as aristocracy, which had the characteristics of military aristocracy. In the 6th century, with the development of religion, Britain formed a system of interrelationship between secular aristocracy and religious aristocracy, and the aristocracy integrated religious colors into the group. By the 10th century, "Ealdorman" was known as the great barons, or local rulers. It was not until the early 11th century that the distinction between the rank of grand barons and that of the common middle and lower barons, thain, became clear.

After the opening of the new route, Britain became the center of Atlantic shipping and facilitated overseas activities. Britain actively opened up overseas trade, its traditional industrial woolen industry developed rapidly, manual workshops were established. Subsequently, the manual workshop from the woollen industry to expand to mining, iron, shipbuilding and other industrial fields. The demand for wool increased rapidly because of the woolen industry. For a long time, aristocratic landlords in Britain had fenced in the land to raise sheep. Later, they occupied all the land of peasants and drove them out to wander. This was the "enclosure movement" in British history. Thus, a new aristocrat appeared in the countryside. In the 16th century, Britain carried out overseas trade and plunder at the same time. In addition to the enclosure movement, capital was accumulated for the development of British capitalism. Financiers, bankers, big businessmen and manual workers and ranchers grew increasingly full-fledged and formed a new bourgeoisie. Ranchers and ranchers who employ workers in the countryside to run ranches or farms. Some also run industries or businesses. They were called the new aristocracy and Shared interests with other members of the bourgeoisie.

From the end of the 12th century to the 15th century, the great nobles in Britain had a close relationship with the change of dynasties in Britain. At the same time, the great nobles in Britain played a very important role in the management of the country. In June 1215, 25 nobles in London forced king John of England to sign the famous "noble program" "magna carta", which clarified the rights of nobles. , in the middle of the 13th century, represented by the British aristocracy of the British parliament, knight on behalf of Peter mark, became the first speaker. In parliament, meetings are divided into two Chambers: the upper house and the lower house. The house of lords is made up of lords and representatives of the church. The house of lords is formally called the house of lords, and the house of Commons is formally called the house of Commons. In the late 15th century, the British aristocracy gradually took shape and was finally customized, that is, the duke bo zi male. In addition, there are barons and knights, Lord is a rewarding title. Beginning in 1301, the prince of wales became the heir to the British throne. In 1455, the Lancaster family marked with the red rose and the york family marked with the white rose met repeatedly. It lasted 30 years, until the red rose won and the Tudor dynasty was founded. From the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, Britain was under the rule of the tufeng dynasty, which on the one hand tried to weaken the power of the aristocracy and strengthen the autocratic rule, including opposing the Roman Catholic church, carrying out religious reforms and establishing the "church of England". In addition, British power was strengthened by encouraging business and overseas plunder. In the early seventeenth century, the stuarts began to rule England. King James I and his successor, Charles I, both believed in the "divine right of Kings" in politics and believed that "the king owes no debts to anyone except god". They practised despotism and often offended the interests of the bourgeoisie. Religious despotism was also practiced, and the "dissenters" were severely punished, especially the "puritans". Both have created political tensions. During the reign of James I and Charles I, representatives of the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy in the British parliament constantly criticized the king's policies and arbitrary behaviors, and began to form opposition in the parliament. In particular, the opposition took advantage of parliament's power to pass tax bills to fight the king.

In 1637, Charles I imposed religious oppression on the Scots, which aroused the indignation of the Scots, especially the puritans. As a result, the Scots later rebelled and invaded Britain. Charles I was forced to call a parliament in the winter of 1640 to try to get it to pass a bill to impose a new tax on the Scots. Many puritans and representatives of the opposition to the king's tyranny were elected to parliament. These senators not only refused to pass the levy bill, but also demanded that the crown be limited. Their struggle was supported by large masses in both urban and rural areas. Therefore, the convening of this parliament marked the beginning of the British bourgeois revolution. Unwilling to relinquish his power, Charles I declared a crusade against parliament in 1642, provoking a civil war. During the civil war, Britain was divided into two camps. The king's party was based in the north and the west, and its social pillars were the old feudal lords, who were called the king's party or the knights' party. Parliament controlled the southeast, where capitalist industry and commerce were more developed, and relied on the bourgeoisie, the new aristocracy, the yeomen farmers and the urban populace, known as the roundheads. At the beginning of the civil war, the local militia audit under the banner of parliament, formed a parliamentary army. Cromwell, a famous representative of puritans, gained an increasingly important position in the civil war. His parliamentary army defeated the royalist army in the battles of nasibi, ending the civil war. Charles I became a prisoner of parliament, tried by parliament for treason and executed in London in early 1649.

British titles are divided into seven classes, divided into the noble and civilian two major. In addition to the British royal family, the nobility is divided into five grades; as the vassals of the zhou dynasty in China were also divided into five levels, the Chinese language directly translated duke, marquis, earl, viscount and baron. There are also two other titles: baronet and knight, who belong to the common people, not the nobility; However, in the zhou dynasty of China, doctors and scholars still belonged to the aristocracy. It turned out that the peerage was hereditary and there could only be one heir. The eldest son is the legal heir. Only when a nobleman has no sons can his title be inherited by the immediate descendants who first reach the age of succession. It was not until 1958 that non-hereditary "life peerage" was allowed to be conferred on a person. Once an important person has acquired a title, it is not fixed. If you are newly promoted to a higher rank, or even to a new rank, if you have won a prominent military service, distinguished service, or special favor from the king. In addition, aristocratic marriage is also a good opportunity to gain, increase or improve the title and way. Because title fiefdoms are dazzling and admirable, they are admired by many people in the society. Therefore, those who have aristocratic status and property and their long line of heirs can always easily get admirers and suitors. For example, Henry iv, the founder of Lancaster dynasty, had the title of duke from his mother bridge before he ascended the throne. Bridge, the great-granddaughter of Henry iii, owned the earllands of Derby, Lincoln and leicester in addition to the Dukes of Lancaster.

In the 1860s, Britain started the industrial revolution, which greatly promoted social productivity, consolidated and developed capitalism and exerted a great impact on the course of world history. At the same time, the aristocracy gradually evolved into the big capitalists of the bourgeoisie. On the one hand, these new forms of aristocracy capitalists actively developed overseas trade, carried out colonial plunder, accumulated abundant capital, and expanded the vast overseas market and the origin of cheap raw materials. On the other hand, it further promoted the enclosure movement and obtained a large number of employed labor. The booming factory handicraft industry has accumulated a large number of production technologies and increased the output, but it is still unable to meet the ever-expanding market demand, so a revolution in the means of production is looming.

After the British coup of 1688, the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy, using their power in parliament, adopted a series of laws to limit the monarchy. The most far-reaching of these was the bill of rights passed in 1689. Its main provision was to limit the power of the king through parliament, for example, by imposing an arrogation on the authority of the king to cease the law or its enforcement, without the consent of parliament, as an unlawful right. It can be seen that the power of parliament increasingly exceeded the power of the king, and the British group manager constitutional system was gradually formed and developed.

In the 18th century, the enclosure movement prevailed, the landowners acquired a large amount of land, innovated agriculture in a timely manner, improved animal husbandry varieties, and promoted the development of agriculture and animal husbandry. At the same time, a large number of peasants lost their land, flowed into cities and became hired laborers. Other industries, such as coal mining, metallurgy and transportation, were monopolized by the new aristocracy.

Around the 16th century, great changes took place in human history. The feudal system and the jazz system in Britain have their long historical background. In the past, they only focused on the political and military achievements in ancient times, while in the modern times, they were extended to the industrial revolution, various industries and other fields. In the process of British political system change, whether it is the formation of parliament, colonial plunder or industrial revolution, it can be said that the British aristocracy played a very important role.


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