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A Discussion of Fairness of Education Based on Marx’s View of Education

2021-04-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组今天给各位留学生带来一篇纯原创教育代写范文,本文通过对美国教育中存在的不平等现象的呈现,从马克思的理论出发,探讨其原因,认为美国教育机会远远不平等。希望这篇可以帮助到各位留学生,同时需要代写也可以直接联系我们51Due客服vx(vx:Jenny_dynh)进行咨询。

 

A Discussion of Fairness of Education Based on Marx’s View of Education

The fairness and justice of education is an important criterion for judging whether a society is fair or not. Equity in education implies not only equal access to education, but also equal opportunities for education success and effectiveness. The United States is a diversified immigration country with the most powerful universities in the world. These universities are not only good engines for creating social wealth but also a welfare that the state provides to citizens. But how to provide this benefit to students of all races and cultural backgrounds fairly under a democratic system has always been a sharply sensitive issue that troubles American society and universities. In the essay, it is argued that educational opportunities in the United States is far from equal by presenting present phenomena of inequality in the American education and probing its reason from Marx’s theory.

Although some improvement has been made in terms of improving educational equality in the U.S., it is still marked by socio-economic and information unfairness . From the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, the basic education in the United States advocated equality of opportunity for education: everyone enjoyed the right to education.; everyone should be admitted to schools for education. Since the 1960s, with the reform and development of basic education in the United States, especially the publication of the landmark "Equality of Educational Opportunity", the focus of the study on the concept of education fairness has gradually shifted to family background and how school factors affect students' chances. Attendance in U.S. preschools has increased substantially in recent decades(Magnuson, et. Al, 2004). In addition, some monetary assistance is provided. Scholarships are an important consideration when students decide which college to attend. Some states have implemented new scholarship policies to increase support for students from low-income families and encourage them to apply. For example, some special programs are provided to help the first generation of underprivileged college students. When these students are admitted, they can enjoy the full scholarship and receive special study and mentoring programs. At the same time, the university has also increased the number of students enrolled from low-income families.  There are also state universities that spend money on establishing new partnerships with schools inhabited by ethnic minorities and increasing communication with low-income and minority students. But school still listed socio-economic considerations in the admission of students, such as family income, property status, single parent status, community population, parental education, high school achievement and other factors. The gaps in enrollment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged families remain(Magnuson, et. Al, 2004). Financial aid is a key measure to support low-income families after admission. The university will in general provide financial assistance to those candidates who are in difficulty and have outstanding achievements. Also, the phenomenon of mismatch in education is a hot issue plaguing the higher education in the United States at present, that is, the students with excellent academic performance are unable to enter the corresponding high-level universities or receive admission through elite schools due to lack of relevant information and other reasons. At last, they have to be admitted in the general institutions, and even community colleges. Most students with good grades in low-income families do not know they can choose elite schools and some do not even apply to any prestigious universities. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in this aspect.

          Despite the deepening of people's understanding of educational equity, they have not really been effectively implemented in specific schools and classroom practice in the micro-level. In the classroom, the practice of homework in the classroom and evaluating helps to create inequality of students through a social comparison process. The assignment-evaluation model results in a hierarchical order of academic and peer status in the classroom. Once formed, it can become an important source of inequality. Also, external society from the society can have an indirect effect on educational opportunities in the classroom. Any hope of achieving equality of education required vast improvements to the quality of black schooling, such as school buildings, better-trained teachers, broader curricula, and equitable funding(Michel, 2015). Ifact, the schools also differ greatly at the organizational level, certificates of teachers, material and equipment, teaching time and attention distribution, and the overall composition of the school population. They have created inequalities in educational opportunities as a result of the differences in the investment of student education among different states and racial groupsPeople of different minorities are still essentially divided and segregated, and this fragmentation and segregation exacerbate inequalities among students of different race, ethnicity and backgrounds. The public investment in higher education showed that higher educational institution in the US is marked by within the growing disparity(Oliver, & Briscoe, 2011, p.607). It is also highlighting in particular the inequalities in access to learning for people in terms of investment. Some schools are thus economically isolated as well. Also, the "Affirmative Action Act" as an educational affirmative action policy often appears to be extremized in its implementation, forming a sort of inequality towards the racial majority. In the course of pursuing education fairness, American federal government plays a very important role in the federal policy of affirmative action, which also became the most controversial bill in contemporary American history. The affirmative action set a much lower admission standard, which is under criticism of stereotypes and there is suggestion of group-blind admissions(Krishnamurthy, & Edlin, 2014). White people, who make up the majority of the population, are increasingly feeling reverse discrimination. Due to consideration of the cultural diversity, several key universities in recent years have successively shown preference to minorities by lowering standards, which adversely discriminate against majority ethnic students. To date, universities in eight states, including California, Missouri and Washington, have abolished the Affirmative Action Bill. After the abolition of affirmative act, these states are trying to use alternative strategies that weaken racial factors to achieve the cultural diversity of undergraduate admissions.

As the philosophical foundation of Marx's educational criticism, Marx's scientific explanation on the relationship between human and education allows people to view the educational inequality of the U.S. in a new way. In fact, the equality of educational opportunities in the United States emphasizes the quantitative and formal equality, which is based on the different levels of education received by disadvantaged groups in the stratified society and the education system, while the educational fairness theory as one part of Marxist ideological theory criticizes the social roots of educational equality. Marx applied the historical materialism and the theory of surplus value as the theoretical basis to deeply criticize and reveal the non-Marxist education concept and the unfair status quo of capitalist social education. From the aspects of educational principle, educational content and educational funding, the future of social equity education was conceived. The anti-capitalist education of the future include three moments: critique, addressing human needs and realms of freedom(Rikowski, 2004). In Marx's view, people interact with the environment and education. People change their environment, education and environment through their own practical activities. People and the environment, education has been unified on the basis of practice. Marx clearly stated the historical and class nature of education. Historical materialism holds that ideas, concept or the ideology of education as spiritual factors are one part of the superstructure of a society, and it must also be determined by the relations of production under certain historical conditions. In a capitalist society like the U.S, the social and historical nature of it also determines the class nature of education. The ruling class, namely the capitalists that dominates the economic relations must also safeguard its own economic interests and class domination through ideologies such as political, legal, moral, religious, philosophical and educational thoughts. Therefore, Marx believes that the bourgeois outlook on education is determined by the economic foundation of a capitalist society such as the capitalist relations of production, and ownership and the bourgeois rule.

Marx's educational criticism implies the fundamental cause of the inequality of education in the U.S. In the view of social critical theory of Marx, the fairness in education can not be achieved only by changing the educational system. The efforts to bring about education fairness through the change of government policies actually only touch on the surface of unfair education, because the root cause of the unfair education in the United States lies in the hierarchy of the relations of production and the differences between the class cultures related to it. School education is a reflection of unequal social relations of production and class structure, which inevitably also reflects the characteristics of inequality. The motivation and ultimate goal of the capitalist process of production is that capital multiplies itself as much as possible. In analyzing the production of surplus value, Marx elaborated on the influence of machines on the forming of social relationships. Just as Marx said that “To be a capitalist, is to have not only a purely personal, but a social status in production”(Chapter II. Proletarians and Communists). For individual enterprises, the introduction and use of advanced machinery can increase the productivity of enterprises and thus make individual capitalists obtain excess surplus value. In the long run, if individual capitalists are vying to use advanced machines and technologies, they will reduce the value of their commodities, reduce the value of labor force, shorten the necessary labor time and extend the surplus labor time, eventually obtaining the relative surplus value. The impact of such relations of production on the education is enormous. Unequal capitalist education strengthens unequal relations of production and class structure. Therefore, education is constantly strengthening and duplicating social inequalities. The educational reform in the United States is a product of class conflict rather than a product of class rule. Although schools bring some vested interests to ordinary people by expanding their educational opportunities, they mainly play a role in easing class conflicts and safeguarding the capitalist social order. Against the liberal theory of educational equity, they based on a large number of surveys and studies and pointed out that family background will have a great influence on the years and results of the education of students. Therefore, the equal function of education as a ladder of fair competition in social system of capitalism are simply impossible. In their view, in American society, education is the defender of the existing social injustice. Most children went to primary school, but the 'gifted' the were educated in paid private  schools and universities, which was a barrier for students from the working-class family(Germov, 2004). The school helps shape a variety of identity differences and reinforces stratification, thereby legitimating economic inequalities. In this way, social stratification and class stratification have emerged within the public education system and education has historically been a means of locating individuals in various economic positions. As a tool for ideological reproduction, education reproduces the unfairness in the society and economy. The ineffectiveness of educational reproduction is unattainable by other systems and at the same time it is greatly masked. Thus, inequalities in education can be seen as part of an entire reticular organization in capitalist society, and as long as one day of capitalism exists, they may exist. Nowadays, when the biggest problem in the United States is the polarization of the rich and the poor, also, the educational gap between the rich and the poor in the U.S. is worsening in recent decades. The United States is moving towards a society dominated by the rich and knowledgeable kids. The greatest social inequality has evolved into from an economic position into an educational one. In this context, American universities should take more consideration of socio-economic and other social factors in achieving equity in education, rather than purely focusing on educational equality. 

       It can not be denied that current educational policies have played a positive role in correcting educational injustice in efforts to achieve educational equity in American universities. However, higher education is still marked by inequality in educational resources related to economical positions, and student choice of universities, despite that some education policies are in place to promote educational equality. Marx’s analysis of production relations is applicable to explain the increasing inequality facing the U.S today.


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