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An Overview of Henan Province

2021-03-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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An Overview of Henan Province

Introduction

It is worldwide acknowledged that China is the third largest country. Located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, Henan Province possesses a favorable natural geographical environment. Actually, Henan Province is the residence of three dynasties in history, namely Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty, demonstrating the significant position of the historical stage especially during the early development of China (Zhang, 2013). Besides, many research results prove that it is in Henan Province that the origin and formation of Chinese surnames were completely. According to Hou (2012), “the ancestor worship is richly reflected, especially is typical in Henan province that situated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River”. This paper aims to present a comprehensive description of Henan Province, in terms of geographical features, climate changes, water resources, and regional description, accounting for the formation of farming culture.

 

Geographical Features

The geographical differences directly result in different natural products, which then lead to the differences in regions, ethnic material production and lifestyles. For instance, agriculture is well developed in subtropical areas, due to adequate heat and moisture while grasslands and deserts provide vast areas for animal husbandry (Zhou & Li, 2015).

 

The geography in Henan Province mainly has two features. For one thing, there is a distinct difference between the east and the west. Henan Province is located in the transition zone between the second stage and the third stage. The general geographical trend in Henan Province is like this: the west is high and undulating while the eat is low and flat. From the west to the eat, there are mountains of middle heights to lower heights, and hills to plains, with great height changes throughout the whole province. It is the apparent terrain changes that contributed to many important rives, most of which originated from the western mountains. For another thing, the second geographical feature lies in the complicated geographical morphology, with a combination of mountains, hills, plains, basins and other landforms in general. Mountains in the province are mainly concentrated in northwester, western and southern areas. As for the hills, most of the hills are lower hills which have experienced long-term wind denudation. Some of them become the loess hills after being cut by the Chinese Loess Plateau. Hills and mountains are often coherently distributed, mainly in northwestern minority regions, mountain east edges both in the west and the east.

 

There are widespread plains, with vast areas and fertile soil. Nanyang basin is located in southwest, showing an obvious annular and step-like features. Being the largest mountain basin in Henan Province, the middle basin is flat, with abundant water and heat resources, allowing a wide range of plants to grow and develop here. In addition, the main types of soil in Henan Province can be generally divided into the yellow brown soil, brown soil, brown earth, tidal soil, sandy land, saline soil and rice soil. In particular, Nanyang basin has many sandy lands. Tidal soil commonly exists in alluvial plains. Saline soil is distributed along the both sides of the Yellow River. Brown soil and yellow brown soil can be mainly found in mountain areas.

 

Climate Features

In terms of climate, Henan Province is located in warm temperate zone and subtropical zone, belonging to wet-semi-humid climate. In spring, it is dry, windy and sandy. Summer is hot and rainy. There is enough sunshine in autumn while winter is cold with less snow or rain. The annual average temperature generally changes from 12 centigrade to 16 centigrade, with a relatively larger daily temperature range and year temperature range (Yu, Liu, Chang & Wang, 2008). The temperature distribution in the whole province declines from the west to the east, from the south to the north. The annual average precipitation is about 500mm to 900 mm (Yu, Liu, Chang & Wang, 2008). The southern and western mountains have more precipitation, with most half of the rainfalls concentrating in summer.

 

Water resources

There are a series of river systems in Henan Province, from the Yellow River, the Huai River, the Yangtze River to the Haihe River. There are more than 1500 main rivers crisscrossing the whole province (Gu, Wang & Zhu, 2010). The most well-known rive, the Yellow River runs across the middle and north of the province, with a length of 711 kilometers and basin area of about 36,200 square kilometers, accounting for about 20 percent of the total area of Henan Province (Smith, 2016). The Huai River is located in central and southern China, with a large number of tributaries and a large amount of water. The basin covers an area of more than eight hundred square kilometers, accounting for about fifty percent of the whole province (Zhao, Deng & Wang, 2008).

 

Benefiting from geographical features and water resources, there are many kinds of natural resources as well, including mineral resources, forest resources, animal and plant resources, and tourism resources. Complicated geological structure contributes to the superior metallogenic condition. Thus many mineral deposits are found in Henan Province, including bauxite, molybdenum, gold, silver, antimony, iron and so on. The gasoline resource is abundantly available, being advantageous mineral resources in Henan. As for plant resources, Henan Province is not only a major province of edible fungi, but a national agricultural base in China. The products mainly cover oyster mushroom, mahogany, white fungus, wheat, cotton, corn, soybean, peanut and so on.

 

Regional Description

Human material production is the precondition of human’s survival, however, material production is inevitably to be restricted by the geographical conditions. The restricting relationship naturally leads to the consequence of the mutual adaptive function between the geographical environment and human economics and culture. Being one of the human origins for Chinese, Henan Province has a significant historical position, playing a significant role in promoting the progress of China. This is based on the comprehensive function of its geographical features, climate feature, water resources and other natural conditions, making it more than suitable for human habitation and agricultural production.

 

Conclusion

Apart from what has been introduced above, Henan Province is a typical area market with farming culture both in history and in modern times, in accordance with the national impression on other nations. The formation of Chinese farming culture is closely related to natural geographical features and other natural conditions. For the geographical environment of the Henan Province, it can be summarized to have closed, fertile and agricultural plains and hills in general, which determines that the Chinese have a choice of the farming civilization throughout the whole history.


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