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Contributions of economism and rationalism

2020-12-18 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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Contributions of economism and rationalism

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Contributions of economism and rationalism,文章描述这无疑是不可避免的,经验主义和理性主义的科学的角度十七和十八世纪之间扮演着重要的角色。因为在十七世纪之前,人们都占主导地位由前现代思想(史密斯,2003),这意味着,于前现代期间,性质和社会世界视为神的意志,所有的知识分子都明白神的创造(史密斯,2003; Dutram,2005:95)。十七和十八世纪之间,有一个思想,文化和智力运动在欧洲的启蒙时代(吉尔莫,1989:1; Kramnick,1995:1),这是无视。在运动过程中,对外部世界知识(2005:98 Dutram),人与人之间的关系和科学真理,理性和进步的根本思想哲学家(史密斯,2003:32)。科学知识是不同的,从传统的思维方式,如宗教和迷信(史密斯,2003:28)。因为科学是一个在现代生活中的权威和文化力量(史密斯,2003:28;亨利,2004:10)。在运动过程中,一些思想家,如弗朗西斯·培根(1561-1626),约翰·洛克(1632-1704)和艾萨克·牛顿(1642-1727)认为,观察和实验是获得科学知识的基本和重要的方式,而他们攻击形而上学另一方面,推理被视为真正的知识来源,这块意见是由勒内·笛卡尔(1596-1650)举行。因此,经验主义和理性主义很明显,转变思维方法从传统的科学(史密斯,2003)。这篇文章说,经验主义和理性主义是有用的物理和几何,但只是经验主义和理性主义的结合,可以发挥最重要的作用,自然的科学。第一部分是介绍前现代的思想,第二部分将介绍经验主义的的功能的之后,理性的功能将被证明,第四部分是怎么回事引进相结合的经验主义和理性主义的影响万有引力定律,进化论的影响社会科学,最后将有一个经验主义和理性主义的结论是,通过社会科学方法,科学的角度作出贡献。

 

A discussion of the contribution of empiricism and rationalism to the emergence of the scientific perspective between 17th and 18th centuries

 

keywords:discussion,empiricism,rationalism,scientific perspective

 

Introduction 简介

这无疑是不可避免的,经验主义和理性主义的科学的角度十七和十八世纪之间扮演着重要的角色。因为在十七世纪之前,人们都占主导地位由前现代思想(史密斯,2003),这意味着,于前现代期间,性质和社会世界视为神的意志,所有的知识分子都明白神的创造(史密斯,2003; Dutram,2005:95)。十七和十八世纪之间,有一个思想,文化和智力运动在欧洲的启蒙时代(吉尔莫,1989:1; Kramnick,1995:1),这是无视。在运动过程中,对外部世界知识(2005:98 Dutram),人与人之间的关系和科学真理,理性和进步的根本思想哲学家(史密斯,2003:32)。科学知识是不同的,从传统的思维方式,如宗教和迷信(史密斯,2003:28)。因为科学是一个在现代生活中的权威和文化力量(史密斯,2003:28;亨利,2004:10)。在运动过程中,一些思想家,如弗朗西斯·培根(1561-1626),约翰·洛克(1632-1704)和艾萨克·牛顿(1642-1727)认为,观察和实验是获得科学知识的基本和重要的方式,而他们攻击形而上学另一方面,推理被视为真正的知识来源,这块意见是由勒内·笛卡尔(1596-1650)举行。因此,经验主义和理性主义很明显,转变思维方法从传统的科学(史密斯,2003)。这篇文章说,经验主义和理性主义是有用的物理和几何,但只是经验主义和理性主义的结合,可以发挥最重要的作用,自然的科学。第一部分是介绍前现代的思想,第二部分将介绍经验主义的的功能的之后,理性的功能将被证明,第四部分是怎么回事引进相结合的经验主义和理性主义的影响万有引力定律,进化论的影响社会科学,最后将有一个经验主义和理性主义的结论是,通过社会科学方法,科学的角度作出贡献。

It is inevitably and undoubtedly that empiricism and rationalism play significant roles on scientific perspective between seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Because before seventeenth century, people were dominated by pre-modern thought (Smith, 2003), which means, during pre-modern period, the nature and the social world were regard as the divine will, and all the intellectuals were understood as God’s creation (Smith, 2003; Dutram, 2005:95). Between seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was an ideological, cultural and intellectual movement in Europe,http://www.ukassignment.org/azdxassignment/  which was defied as the Age of Enlightenment (Gilmour, 1989:1; Kramnick, 1995:1). During the movement, the fundament for knowledge of the external world (Dutram, 2005:98), the relationship between human beings and science; truth, reason and progress were thought by philosophers (Smith, 2003:32).Scientific knowledge was different from traditional ways of thinking, such as religious and superstitions (Smith, 2003:28).Because science is an authoritative and cultural force in modern life (Smith, 2003:28; Henry, 2004:10). During the movement, some thinkers such as Francis Bacon (1561-1626), John Locke (1632-1704) and Isaac Newton (1642-1727) thought observation and experiment were the basic and vital ways to get scientific knowledge, whilst they attacked metaphysics; On the other hand, reasoning was regarded as the source of the true knowledge, this piece of opinions was held by Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Therefore, Empiricism and Rationalism were apparent, and transformed the methods of thinking from traditional to scientific (Smith, 2003). This essay will argue that empiricism and rationalism is useful to physics and geometry respectively, but only combination of empiricism and rationalism can play the most important role on natural science. First part is to introduce the pre-modern thought; second part will describe the feature  s of the empiricism; following it, features of rationalism will be demonstrated; the forth part is going to introduce the combination of empiricism and rationalism influences laws of gravity and the theory of evolution influences social science, at last, there will a conclusion that empiricism and rationalism contribute to scientific perspective through the social scientific methods.

 

Rationalism 唯理论

 

Rationalism is focus on rational institutions. This means, reasoning is the source of true knowledge. Compared with inductive approach in empiricism, the feature of rationalism is deductive method (Perry, 1992:85). Deductive method was established by Rene Descartes (1596-1650), one of the founders of modern philosophy (Herny, 2004:12). It meant human consciousness and motion could provide a foundation for knowledge (Perry, 1992:86; Porter, 2001:15 Henry, 2004:13). Descartes was one of the skeptics; he doubted everything except his own existence and his thought (Perry, 1992:86). Descartes tried to use mathematical concepts to explain physical phenomena and existence of God. For instance, Descartes thought, if the idea was reality, the cause of the idea should be reality (Parkinson, 1993:167; Ashley, 2002:76). Descartes claimed, people experienced imperfect things, but the mind of perfect beings still existed, so God’s objective existence was the original source for the perfect beings (Perry, 1992:86). Furthermore, the idea of existence of God was presented, people could not experience or discovery God directly, which meant the idea of God’s existence was not artificial, therefore God was immortal (Parkinson, 1993:167; Smith, 2003:50). Moreover, he distinguished mind and body and alleged human being were arranged by God’s will (Stein, 2009:199; Smith, 2003:51). Descartes confirmed the existence of God through logical deductive, this thought helped him avoid conflicting with Church and supplied a possible scientific method to explain God’s existence rather than doubted God (Smith, 2003:51). Besides, Descartes achieved his general views on intuition through mathematical method (Ashley, 2002:76). For example, the concept of God included the concept of external existence was known by intuition, after examining the concept, a general view that one can include another was grasped (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2004).

 

Conclusion 结论

 

To sum up, empiricism is the piece of view that sense-experience is the original source of true knowledge (Hjorland, 2005:130; Henry, 2004:15); and rationalism emphasizes that reasoning is the foundation of scientific knowledge (Perry, 1992:85). In essential, both empiricism and rationalism are major approaches to investigate natural and social worlds.

 

Reference 参考文献

 

Ashley, M. (2002).The Colden Century: Europe 1598-1715.London: Phoenix Press.

Dutram, D. (2005). The Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gildenhuys, P. (2004). Darwin, Herschel, and the role of analogy in Darwin’s origin. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Science, 35(2004), 593-611.

Gilmour, P. (1989). Philosophers of the Enlightenment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Gupta, A. (2006). Empiricism and Experience. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship.

Henry, J. (2004). Science and the Coming of the Enlightenment. London: Routledge.

Hjorland, B. (2005).Empiricism, rationalism and positivism in library and information science. Journal of Documentation, 61(1), 130-155.

Kramnici, I. (1995).The portable Enlightenment reader. London: Penguin Books.

Parkinson, G.H.R. (1993).The Renaissance and 17th Century Rationalism. London: Routledge.

Perry, M. (1992).An Intellectual History of Modern Europe. Boston: Houghton Mills.

Porter, R. (2001).The Enlightenment. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Smith, M.J. (1998). Social Science in question. Great Britain: The Open University.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2004). Rationalism VS. Empiricism. Retrieved July 10th, 2011

 

 

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