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Research Question

2020-02-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文,是Research Question

,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是如何找出年轻男女同性恋者、双性恋者和变性人(LGBT)在青少年性别不一致、青少年学校受害和青年人心理社会适应之间的关系。写到了背景、调查资料的样本和总体、关键变量和研究发现方面。

Research Question

Toomey et al. (2010) seek to figure out the associations among the adolescent gender nonconformity, adolescent school victimization and young adults psychosocial adjustment experienced by young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Specifically, they put forwards three hypotheses. Firstly, the level of adolescent gender nonconformity is proportional to the instances of victimization for LGBT individuals. Secondly, the impact of adolescent gender nonconformity on school victimization for LGBT individuals is moderated by biological sex. Thirdly, the school victimization experienced by adolescent LGBT individuals can mediate the direct impact of gender nonconformity on their psychosocial adjustment.

Background

With the development of society, the situation of LGBT groups attracts the attention of more and more scholars and general people. Even though the case of Larry King’s murder is an extremely particular instance of victimization experienced by adolescent LGBT individuals, it promotes more people to attach importance to the situation and psychosocial adjustment of young LGBT groups.

Meyer’s minority stress model provides an important theoretical basis for people to understand the reason why gender-nonconforming people tend to experience psychosocial problems. According to Meyer, LGBT individual’s stigmatized sexual identities make them suffer from mental health distress.

Furthermore, researchers also suggest that individuals who do not assume the characteristics and roles related to their biological sex, tend to suffer from poor psychosocial adjustment and suicidality in adolescence. At the same time, some researchers find that, it is more likely for an adolescent who has higher level of gender nonconforming to suffer from school victimization. Besides, compared to other place, young LGBT people experience more physical victimization at school.

Sample and Population

The research data of the Family Acceptance Project’s young adult survey is used in the research. 245 LGBT young adult jointed in the survey, and researchers recruited them from multiple venues in the San Francisco Bay Area that they appeared frequently. The average participant age was 22.8 years old. 51.4 percent of participants were Latino while the rest were identified as White and non-Latino young adults. Moreover, the biological sex of 51.4 percent of participants was male and the 48.6 was female, while 42.5 percent of participants viewed themselves as gay, 27.8 percent of participants identified themselves as lesbian, 13.1 percent bisexual, and 16.7 percent other. Generally, they began to realize their inner sex when they were 10.7 years old on average, labeled themselves as LGBT at 13.9 years old, and let others know their situation at 15.2 years old on average.

Key Variables

Three primary independent variables were measured in the study, gender nonconformity, school victimization and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and young adults. In order to figure out the gender nonconformity of participants, the participants were asked to answer that how they described themselves (scale of feminine or masculine) when they were between 13 and 19 years old, how they describe themselves at present, and how they describe themselves when comparing to the peers. Furthermore, participants were asked to answer whether or not and how often they suffered from school victimization because they were regarded as LGBT. In addition, for the sake of understanding the psychosocial adjustment of target adolescent and young adults, participants were asked to answer their situation with respect to depression and life satisfaction. In addition, ethnicity, immigrant status, sexual orientation, gender and outness to others during high school were regarded as control variables.

Research Findings

It was not supported that the link between the school victimization and gender nonconformity for adolescent LGBT individuals can be moderated by their biological sex. In other words, the gender-nonconforming boys do not suffer from more school victimization than girls who experience gender nonconformity as well, and vice versa. What is more, young adults and females who have better economic backgrounds tend to suffer from less school victimization and have higher level of life satisfaction. Meanwhile, it is more likely for queers, White and individuals who were more out to others to experience higher level of school victimization; and immigrants tended to experience depression, and outness to others was closely related to higher levels life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Generally, it was supported that the level of adolescent gender nonconformity was proportional to the instances of victimization for LGBT individuals. In addition, the research also showed that, LGBT’s experience of school victimization during their adolescence was responsible for their long-term psychosocial adjustment, and influence their quality of life.

Strengths and Limitations

As there are few literatures paying attention to the question that whether adolescent school victimization accounts for the negative psychosocial adjustment and wellbeing of adolescent LGBT who experience gender nonconformity, the study makes up the deficiency and provides useful lessons for further study of other researchers. Furthermore, the sample strategies adopted to recruit stigmatized groups were effective and efficient. What is more important, the research promotes people to pay attention to the serious impact of school victimization on LGBT individuals.

However, it is important to note that the limited sample cannot reflect the situation of all gender-nonconforming adolescents and cannot establish causality. Moreover, the data collection, order of measurements and order of questions may lead to subjective rather than objective answers. In addition, the research lacked a measure of expectations of victimization. At the same time, the measurement of gender nonconformity, victimization and violence related to LGBT were limited as well.

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