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about"Global terrorism research"

2020-02-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

今天为大家带来一篇论文:“Global terrorism research”,这篇论文主要描述的是近两千年前,在古巴勒斯坦,西西里狂热者用恐怖主义作为手段,反对罗马占领犹太。当时,犹太指挥官约瑟夫斯弗拉维乌斯转行成为罗马的支持者和历史学家,他记录了西西里狂热者是如何混入耶路撒冷的人群中,使用他们藏在衣服里的短匕首进行谋杀的。狂热分子表明,以恐怖组织形式存在的恐怖主义有着悠久的历史下面就让我们一起来看看吧!

Nearly two millennia ago, in Ancient Palestine, the Zealots- Sicarii used terrorism as a means to oppose the Roman occupation of Judea. At the time, Josephus Flavius, a Jewish commander who changed to become a Roman supporter and historian, records how the Zealots-Sicarii mingled in the crowds in Jerusalem committing murders using the short daggers (sica) that they had concealed in their clothes. Zealots show that the existence of terrorism in the form of terrorist groups has a long history.

Leaving behind the 1st century A.D., we will arrive to our century and more specifically to the day which was portrayed as the day that “changed the world”, September 11. On 20 September, 2001 George W. Bush, heavily criticised for his invisibility throughout the immediate aftermath of the attacks on the US, addressed Congress. His nation had been “awakened to danger and called to defend freedom” [1] . In order to defend his nation George W. Bush declared the “war on terror” by setting up also the dimensions of this declaration: it begins with Al-Qaida, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated. All nations that “provide aid or safe haven to terrorists” would be pursued relentlessly on the basis of an ultimatum that either “you are with us or you are with the terrorists” ( P. Scraton, 2002, page 5). That simply means that there is no third way, no neutral territories. Any regime tolerating or “encouraging terrorism” would be designed “hostile” because threats US interests.

Regardless of international mandate, formal political debate or democratic political process and in contravention of international law and conventions, Bush prepared the ground for the inevitable. This “war” was not only against Islam but against any ubiquitous terrorism. With over 60 nation-states already proscribed as hostile, the long haul announced and the “defence of civilisation” as the high moral purpose , the US was going to war (P. Scraton, 2002, page 5). Any state which was not party to Bush administration's solution, it would be regarded part of its problem. US has been authorized to define, name and eliminate “terrorist” organizations, their members and their associates.

On behalf of UK, Tony Blair endorsed the Bush speech without qualification and the president did not disappoint: the US, he stated, had “no truer friend than Great Britain” with the two states now “joined together in a great cause”. Eight days later in his speech to the Labour Party's annual conference Blair declared September 11 to be “ a turning point in history” [2] . According to Blair's statement, while the “causes of terror” should be understood there could be no justification for September 11. The response has to be “proportionate” and “targeted”. The sleeping giants of western democratic states participated in this “war” and suddenly they were awakened to the repressive and torturing “terrorist groups”. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, many Western countries tried to cope with a complex and highly dynamic threat, an international debate ensued on how to confront and counteract this latest manifestation of terrorism, this situation had as a result an evolution of counter-terrorism policy in Europe. The western countries have accepted the general principle that the combating of a global threat demands a multinational response and a coordinated deployment of political, diplomatic, legal, law enforcement, and military means ( D. Zimmermann and A. Wenger, 2007, page 12).

In fact, the current transatlantic divergence of counter terrorism policies has its origins in the political terrorism of the 1970s and 1980s. The experience of domestic terrorism prompted European governments to “criminalize” political violence movements and deny them any political status. During the twentieth century, counter terrorism policy was divided between states that were exposed to national and cross–border terrorism and states that were exposed neither to domestic terrorism nor to direct threats or acts of cross-border terrorism but the shock of 11 September 2001definately narrowed this gap ( D. Zimmermann and A. Wenger, 2007, page 12).

Research question and hypothesis

It has been created a new counter terrorism “policy making map” where the international community joined its efforts in order to combat terrorism , I would rather say to combat Islamic extremism. Taking all these things into consideration and trying to understand the new “status quo” in global security, I will research the discourses in proscribing “terrorist groups”. My research will be developed through a comparative analysis of European and Middle Eastern proscribing strategies. By using the European examples of IRA (United kingdom) and ETA (Spain) and the Middle- Eastern example of Hamas (Palestine), I will examine the discourses of proscription of these groups. The selection is not random,it has been made after careful deliberation, all of my examples “share” similarities and differences of course which could lead us into the conclusion that there is no a new counter-terrorism policy to “fight” terrorism, but there is just an evolution on the existing counter terrorism policy.

The British case is of particular importance because it analyses the reaction of a country that has dealt with domestic political violence for decades and that became a direct target of international terrorism in the aftermath of the US and British -led military action in Middle East. The Spanish case, by contrast, shows a country that has its share of domestic political violence. Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA ( Basque homeland and freedom) is an armed nationalist ans separatist organization. The Basque nationalist movement claims an ancient history of Basque separation from the Spanish state, tracing this independence to the old Basque laws known as the Fueros and to the Kingdom of Navarra which merged with Spain in the sixteen century ( Michael Von Tangen Page, 1998, page 119). The movement is proscribed as a terrorist organization by the Spanish and French authorities (French list of terrorist organization [3] ), as well as the European Union as a whole (EU list of terrorist organization [4] ) and the United States (Foreign Terrorist organization, FTOs [5] ).

On the other hand, Hamas represents the Islamic extremism according to the international community is designed by the U.S. State department as Foreign Terrorist organization (FTOs). According to Home Office UK is proscribed under UK legislation and has been included in the list of proscribed groups. Hamas fights only one enemy- Israel, Hamas considers itself a resistance fighter. Hamas believes that Israel has to stay inside borders of 1967, but Israel since 11 September is towards a cessation of settlement expansion rather abandonment of settlements outside pre-1967 boundaries (Phil Scraton, 2002, page 1989). At this point, is important to be mentioned that according to M. Bossis [6] , Germany is believed to be the place where many Islamic organizations, like Hezbollah and HAMAS , keep their central governance.

Research design

A research design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data. A choice of research design reflects decisions about the priority being given to a range of dimensions of the research process (Alan Bryman, 2004, page 27). Under these circumstances, research design is important in order to proceed a research project and to pass to the next step which is to choose research methods. Using case study designs I will try to search strategies in proscribing “terrorist groups”. According to David de vaus (2001), a case is the object of study, is the unit of analysis about which we collect information. My cases are: case of IRA in Northern Ireland, case of ETA in Spain and case of HAMAS in Palestine. In order to be more specific, the type of case study designs I will apply will be multiple case. As far as concern the time period will be between 1970 and nowadays.

As I mentioned above, the selection of the cases was not random. IRA, ETA and HAMAS are proscribed as “terrorist groups”. The counter-terrorism policy has changed and became more strict after 9/11. Researching these cases I will explore the proscription strategies of these organizations. All of my cases “share” similarities and differences which explain the proscription strategies that have been followed for each one so far, by other means explain how these revolutionary groups renamed as “terrorist groups”. The discussion about terrorism and terrorist groups was really intense during 1970 except IRA and ETA, the Western world “has to confront also with the threat” of RAF (Germany) and Red Brigades (Italy) arriving in 2010,specially after 9/11, the world changed, there was no excuse in the existence of such groups.I need to point that the concept of terrorism “created” the new counter- terrorism and made the discourses in proscribing “terrorist groups” something urgent. According to Anthony Giddens (2006), the word terrorism has its origins in the French Revolution of 1789. The term terror was not invented by the revolutionaries themselves, but by the counter-revolutionaries. Today, we can define terrorism as “any action, by non-state organization, that is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians, or non-combatants, when the purpose of such an act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act (Anand Panyarachum et al. 2004).

Although, social scientists disagree over whether the term “ terrorism” can be useful context, is generally accepted that is a difficult term to define. It is often said that “ ones person's terrorist in another person's freedom fighter”.

Choice and justification of evidence gathering strategies

In order to gather evidence and elaborate my research topic, I will use documentary research and documentary analysis. Documentary content is important and that's because the emerge of documentation implicates fields or networks of action, involves creators (agents, writers, publishers) and users (readers and receivers). I am going to comb and analyse texts from the past and the present of course, legal frameworks, records and archives, surveys, printed media and literature and electronic sources. I strongly believe that documents are not only words frequently contain pictures, diagrams and emblems, so I will try to interpret even these objects which can function as documents. I will use an example to explain further my opinion. When I visited Belfast in Northern Ireland, I noticed that the city was full of enormous graffiti which were representing armed members of IRA or riots. The whole history of Northern Ireland was on these walls, these graffiti can work as documents and provide remarkable information on my research topic. Collecting information through all these sources, I will try to compare my three cases and provide a complete scientific “image” on proscriptions of “terrorist groups”.

I do feel that dealing with terrorism is really difficult. Using questionnaires as a method is not practicable, terrorism is a complicate social phenomenon that imposes study and analysis in depth. Another method which can be used is the interview but still the implementation of this technique arises new problem matters that I will explain in the last part. Finally, according to Lindsay Prior (2003) the use of documents as a source of collecting data emerge six key points:

1.Researching the inert text requires one to attend to issues of reliability and validity

2.Issues of reliability and validity in turn require that we state at the outset of theresearch project what, exactly, we are seeking to achieve, and what is to be included in the field of study

3.Selection of documentary materials should be in accordance with the principles established in the preceding point

4.In those instance where documentary materials have to be sample, a thorough justification for the sampling procedures needs to be provided

5.Indexing and coding of data need to be executed in a rigorous and unbiased manner

6.While drawing conclusions from data, always pay special attention to data that apparently fail to confirm one's claims and generalizations

Lindsay prior summarized aptly the problem areas in using documentary research as a research method. Take into consideration these key points, documents can provide reliable and valid evidences and give answers to scientific questions.

Sources of data

In order to collect the data I need to develop my research, I will visit libraries abroad, specifically in Middle-East and Spain. The purpose of this is to gather original data and to find special editions on terrorism in Spanish (ETA) and in Arabic (HAMAS). Publications (government documents, reports, books, articles, biographies, bibliographies, archives), electronic sources (websites about terrorism, about counter terrorism, about homeland security and about weapon of mass destruction), legal frameworks, documentaries about terrorism, paintings, graffiti, printed media will be used as sources of data.In Italian.Natalino Ronzitti, (1992), Europa e terrorismo internazionale. Analisi giuridica del fenomeno e convezioni internazionali. Instituto Affari Internazionali, Roma, Italy

In English.1.Shahl Shay, (2005), The axis of evil. Iran, Hezbollah, and the Palestinian Terror. The interdisciplinary centre Herzliya Projects LTP.2.Omer Elagab and Jeehaan Elagab, (2007), International Law Documents Relating to Terrorism. Routledge, New York.

This last book in English was the most interesting because it includes the report (1232) of counter terrorism committee (24 December 2001). All the books are relevant with the research topic , the selection has been made after a long search in the library. The research hypothesis emerge after the study of these books. All of them deal with terrorism and counter terrorism not only in Europe but even in Middle East. The most important in this sources research is that the books I brought from Alexandria are necessary to go on with my thesis.

Evidence of my visit in the Library of Alexandria.The three images are receipts in order to make copies of the books inside the library.Discussion of the evidence gathering process.I have to admit that was not so easy to collect these information. First of all, I needed to travel in Egypt, that means I needed to organize my time so travelling was not interfering in my academic obligations. It was quite simple to find the books, I spent a lot of time but I found the necessary documents. I had no difficulty to deal with the English and Italian books. I speak fluent English and Italian. As far as concern Arabic books, I had to give for translations some difficult capitals of the books. I was communicating without problems inside the library, every time I could not speak Arabic, because my level is not perfect, I was communicating in English. The most difficult part was to make copies of the books, Arabic students come before international ones, so I had to wait them finish and make copies of my books, I felt a lot of stress because the office for copies was closing at some point. I also found myself struggling to fill in the receipts to copy the books (images are provided above). It is obvious that I had not to manage extremely difficult and complicated situations on finding relevant documents for my research, I believe that I had to deal with typical matters.

I mentioned above the interview as a research method. Unfortunately, I was not able to interview no one in Egypt and in Syria. People in Middle- East do not talk easily about terrorism. They are afraid to express their ideas and their believes. Most of them have an opinion about Hamas and the conflict between Palestine and Israel but they avoid to discuss about these things. There is an atmosphere of suspicion everywhere. Especial, they did not talk to me because I am a woman, I am not Arabic and a Muslim. I have not even met them, they made it clear, through a common friend, that they do not trust me. I do not know If this situation can be improved, I need to think and find an alternative because I do feel that It will take a lot of time to convince them to talk. Under these circumstances, I do not intend to use interview as a research technique.

 

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