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The evolution of historical and modern buildings

2020-01-07 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

近年来,建筑学专业在留学圈越来越火,更多的留学生在选择留学的道路上会偏向建筑学,其中英国拥有全球顶尖建筑学院校。今天51Due教员组就给各位留学展示下英国建筑历史essay范文以供各位学生参考。在对英国建筑历史的简要分析的基础上,以从曼彻斯特到大西区仓库和车站大楼的范围为基础,对英国相对统一的城市风格以及新旧建筑的演变进行了自上而下的研究,延续历史环境和地方精神的最佳解决方案

关键词:建筑历史演变历史建筑

QQ截图20190919161751.jpg

Abstract:Based on the brief analysis of British Architectural History, the scope from Manchester to Great Western Warehouse and Station Building is taken to conduct top-down research of relatively unified urban style of the UK and the evolution of old and new buildings, seeking the best solution to continue the historical environment and place spirit.

Key wordsArchitectural history,Evolution,Historical building

 

Section 1   Brief Analysis of British Architectural History

The United Kingdom was separated from the European continent by the British Straits. Due to this, buildings with unique geographical features gradually appeared.

The British Architecture History can date back to the construction of Stonehenge while what really stands for Architecture is the conquest and occupation of the British by the Roman Empire. The earliest large-scale buildings are built at that time but in addition to some military fortresses, they rarely survived to this day. With the decline of the Roman Empire around AD410, Anglo-Saxon from the European continent took control of UK. Their Anglo-Saxon Architecture is relatively simple, using wood and thatch as the roof. However, their religious buildings are relatively complicated. The features of church are blank arcading, baluster shaft, triangular headed opening and so on. These churches are generally tall and narrow with the architectural characters of simple shape, deep embedded windows, semi-circular arches, and hornstones with different length.

More than 100 years later, Romanesque Style from Europe was known to UK. The new architectural style called Norman architecture is based on ancient Roman arches and vouchers, thick round columns and square towers in large scales, causing the lack of architectural innovation and decoration.

Gothic Architecture dominated the architectural trend of the UK for more than 400 years since the late 12th Century. Its typical features are the use of light-pointed arches, sleek spires, light and dexterous flying buttresses and decorated Windows with stained glass. Gothic Architecture experienced 3 main periods. First is The Early English Style. The lack of architectural skills resulted in the pointed arch of the lancet. The second period is the Decorated Gothic Style, which was popular in AD1275-1380. The spherical, trefoil and four-leaf floral ornaments became the main decoration of this period. The third period is the Perpendicular Gothic Style, which reached the peak of Gothic Style development in the UK in 1380-1520, emphasizing vertical lines.

In the late Middle Ages, the Gothic style closely linked to the Christian Church was contained in the Reformation. Tudor Style blending traditional Gothic and Renaissance styles became the end of British medieval architecture. The most prominent feature of it is the four-center blunt arch. Other features include tall and narrow windows and doors, complex decorated chimneys and so on. During this period, there were also houses with half-timber structures and distinct national characters.

Influenced by the tide of the European Renaissance, Tudor style of the late Middle Ages was quickly replaced, developing the Elizabethan architecture and the Jacobean style. The theme is eclecticism and the main features include Dutch gable and geometric Flemish strapwork. The English Renaissance is compatible with the influence of Gothic and Classicism elements. Under the influence of Germanism and Germanism is significant, it likewise inherits the complex and beautiful window decoration from the Dutch gables, forming a complex eclecticism with British Renaissance characteristics.

Stuart Architecture or English Baroque was produced after the death of James I. This style adds a baroque style to the overall classical form, but abandoning stacked decorations. the design of it is bright, individual, and more biased towards classicism, which could be a variant of Classicism.

The first trend of British Classical Renaissance emerged in the mid-17th Century. The core idea of Palladian Architecture was to revive the style and proportion of ancient Roman architecture. Its style is elegant, its decorative elements are simple, and the classical columns and decorated patterns are widely used. Georgian Architecture was a British mainstream style from around AD1714 to AD1830. Generally speaking, the layout is strictly rectangular with the depth of the two rooms. The rectangular main entrance is centered on the façade. There will be a rectangular or fan-shaped white-sided louver on the main entrance. Apart from that,there will be a classic porch in front of the door according to owner’s economic conditions.

Greek Revival appeared as part of the Classical Renaissance Movement with the deepening of ancient Greek archaeological discoveries around 1750s. It can also be considered as the final stage of the Neoclassical Movement and it is based on ancient Greek architecture, mainly using Doric columns and four-sided open layout.

The Regency Style came up in the early 19th Century is a variant of the late Georgian style, containing more Eclecticism. From Gothic to Indian methods, it took facades painted by white plaster, black doors, elegant iron balcony and bow window as features.

In the early 19th Century, the Romanticism against the symmetry of Palladianism medieval Gothic style took place. The Victorian architecture refers to the sum of a series of Renaissance Movements in the mid to late 19th century, including a new interpretation of various historical styles. Meanwhile, it has also been fragmented on account of the influence by the Middle Eastern and Asian architectural styles. The main emerging forces of it are Gothic, Renaissance and British traditional style. The Industrial Revolution, invention of new materials and the emergence of new technologies led to the rapid advancement of building technology by the middle 19th century. Steel structures began to be used in architecture while architectural style was reversed back to historical style.

The Gothic Revival movement originated in the United Kingdom became an abstract ideology and cultural, social and religious movements far beyond the architectural realm. Late Victorian Gothic Revival turned to a plain Early British style with its minaret directly copied the style from Norman Style of Roman. Gothic Revival buildings are more refined and luxurious compared with Gothic at medieval times, which means it is the renaissance of Gothic at modern times. Most of the ancient buildings preserved in the UK are Gothic, Classical and half-timbered buildings. Therefore, it is apparent that the influence of Gothic on British architecture is particularly profound. Besides, red brick has become a British traditional building material.

In 1901 when Queen Victoria died, the British began to demand more luxury life, and the architecture clearly showed Mannerism and Baroque styles. The Edwardian Style includes the use of a large number of rough-faced stone façades, especially on the ground floor of the building. The arched porch entrance with the wedge-shaped arches is exaggerated. There are small domes at the top corners of the building and pavilion. The vaulted tower and colonnade is formed by Lonian Column.

Britain in the 18th century was a country that entered industrial society earlier in Europe. It built the world's first metal structure bridge with pig iron as a material as early as 1779. Together with Crystal Palace, it led the revolution in modern industrialization in the field of architecture. While people are fascinated by their technology, efficiency and speed, they also find the weakness of British culture.

The art & crafts Movement took place in the UK in the late 19th century. It is an international movement in the field of decoration and art. Its core concept is to oppose industrialization, abandon the style of historicism and shackles of classicism while fully consider the user's activities, material structure and location relationship. Then it determines the appearance of the building. Among all these styles, the construction of steel and glass as the main material has become the representative of the new British Architecture.

British Architecture has left a unique mark in every era. Sometimes the UK interprets trends with its own aesthetics, such as the Classical Renaissance. Sometimes it rejects congregation, maintaining its independence of island's spirit during the Baroque period. After the 19th century, it plays the role of creators and leaders in the Gothic and Victorian periods. Obviously, In the history of Western Architecture, the UK has the most nationalistic characteristics.

 

Section 2   Architecture in Manchester

Manchester is one of the old cities in the UK, It’s urban architecture reflects the British urban landscape. Its styles include Saxon style with simple shape, deep inlaid windows, semi-circular arches, and hornstones of different length is popular in AD600 -1066; The Gothic and Classicism styles with arched vouchers and flying buttresses that were built at the end of the 12th century reflect the ancient Roman columns and decorative patterns of ancient Greece and Rome. Actually, modern architecture takes a larger part compared with styles above. It is made of steel and glass materials. These new architectural icons reflect the trend and represent the face of new British architecture.

The new buildings in Manchester can be broadly divided into two categories.

The first category evolved on the basis of traditional architecture, which usually uses traditional red brick, stone or man-made blocks as the main building materials. The shape, facade and space are relatively traditional.

The second category is the steel and glass construction that originated in the Victorian era. Steel structure, glass enclosure and some new technologies or concepts are the main features of this type of buildings.

Both categories are evolved from a number of old building types. The evolution is driven by conceptual innovations, new material applications and technological advances.

 

Section 3   Background of Site

Manchester is the UK's largest cotton textile and textile machinery manufacturing center. The canal basin is the lifeblood of Manchester in the industrial era, where is the most concentrated place for industrial land and terminals.

3.1 Castlefield

Castlefield has the oldest remains of Manchester and the Waterbridge Canal, which is known as the first canal that the Romans built in the UK. Castlefield has developed into a thriving industrial area due to the convenience of the canal. After the industrial transformation, Manchester seized this unique historical heritage and developed it into a unique attraction in the city. However, it should not be considered as only tourist attractions. Designers insert living elements such as residence and business, preserve the foundation of the Roman castle, repair and renovate old warehouses and expand some buildings. Together they form a dialogue between ancient, modern and contemporary eras throughout time and space.

 

3.2 Museum of Science and Industry (MOSI)

The objects of this research are the Station Building and the Great Western Warehouse. Both buildings belong to the Museum of Science and Industry (MOSI).

Liverpool Road Station is confirmed to be the world's first intercity railway station. The Station Building and warehouses with a high historical value and technology built in 1830 has been preserved to the present, representing the original form of the railway building. The transformation of Liverpool Road Station to the Museum of Science and Industry is in keeping with the trend of museums in the 1980s, perfectly matching the strong historical sense of the building itself with the theme of the industrial revolution.

The Museum of Science and Industry presents a comprehensive achievements in science, technology and industry. Here visitors can experience the industrial development of the UK as the birthplace of the industrial revolution and the role of Manchester, the core industrial city of the UK, in the industrial revolution. The five historical buildings at Liverpool Road Station have been converted into pavilions with different themes, including steam engines, electronic equipment, transport locomotives, textiles and aviation.

Section 4   Architecture of MOSI

MOSI completely preserved the style of the brick-red large-span factory in the industrial age, and continued the place spirit during the industrial production period instead of taking drastic actions in the renovation of the building. When it comes to the façade of the building, designers simply replaced the dilapidated windows and gates of the original building and seal some window holes according to the needs of the exhibition hall. At the same time, a small amount of building volume was added for the purpose of stairwell and viewing platform. The added part of it adopted a new type of glass, forming sharp virtual-real comparison with the original buildings.

4.1 Station Building

The Station Building is the core building of MOSI and it fully demonstrates the British industrial history and railway innovation. The theme of it is steam engine, which is equipped with a large number of precious machines. Most of these machines are preserved very well. The underground first floor of the building was originally the cellar of the station and has now been transformed into the "Underground Manchester" exhibition hall. What is displayed here is the city's water supply and drainage system from the Roman period to the present. The contrast between the lightness of steel and glass and thick red bricks reflects the designer's respect of history while changing the building’s functions rather than taking it as a burden for urban development or architectural design.

Urban development is a superimposed process. Designers use differences to write architectural history, use human history as the basis for the coordinated coexistence of new and old buildings, use architectural design to gradually realize the evolution of the city

4.2 Great Western Warehouse

The renovation and expansion of warehouse is the topic subject in Castlefield on account of their fully reflection of interaction between old and modern buildings.

Great Western Warehouse, the largest building among MOSI’s buildings, has main theme of the textile industry. It is the place where a large number of materials and artifacts about the Manchester textile industry are preserved and where the world's first textile machine is housed. The first floor of this warehouse also features cafe, shop and restaurants.

In the renovation of the Great Western Warehouse, the additional vertical traffic system in the later stages was carried out in the form of a glass box hanging on the facade of the building, which is a common handling technique in industrial heritage renovation. The clear glass is the embodiment of modernism while it sets off the thickness of historical buildings.

4.3 Outer space

The outer space highly maintains the authenticity of the railway station. It retains the railway tracks, waste facilities and floor coverings during industrial production period. The railway station is still what it looks like a hundred years ago. There are all kinds of ancient locomotives and carriages on the railway track. People also used wax figures to copy the scenes of taking the train, allowing visitors to experience the launch and driving of steam locomotives. The waste machines are painted in bright colors for the purpose of decorating squares. The external landscape of MOSI is more like an outdoor industrial culture exhibition hall that can replenish the museum building groups.

Section 5   Conclusion

The transformation of MOSI is an excellent example of regeneration. The designers have greatly respected the historical context and the place spirit. They used tender and right way to make the entire building a new look, realizing harmonious symbiosis between new and old materials.  One of the most important reasons for the relatively uniform style of the UK cities is the evolution of old and new buildings in the UK.

The process of evolution should be based on both history and contemporary elements to predict the future. New buildings must be an integral part of the city, reflect the city's lifestyle and spatial order, develop with the changing times and human progress in the future.

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