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British urban design

2019-12-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British urban design,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的城市设计。20世纪80年代的规划中,新工党政府出版物发表了由理查德·罗杰斯领导的城市公共报告工作组题为《迈向城市复兴》。其中,以设计为主导的新型城市备受推崇。虽然在这份报告中,大多数的参考标准政策改革主要局限于新英格兰工党执政后,但英国有激情的城市设计和政策改革,希望建立一个欧洲最愉快的城市高质量的城市生活空间。

British urban design,英国城市设计,essay代写,作业代写,代写

I. Executive Summary:

In the planning of the 1980 s, the new Labour government publications issued a city led by Richard Rogers working group of public report titled "towards Urban Renaissance" (Urban Task Force, 2000). Among them, a new kind of urban renewal - design - led urban regeneration is highly appraised. Although in this report, most of the reference standard policy reform mainly confined to New England after Labour came to power, but the UK has a passion for the urban design and policy reform, hoping to build a comparable to those, one of Europe's most pleasant city high quality city living space. The spirit of putting the city at the centre of national life has been widely praised. Report on the one hand, the local public sector support as an organizer of urban regeneration, on the other hand also fiercely attacked the view on the following points: (1) emphasis on design and city beautification, and disregard for multicultural coexistence and the tendency of duties and rights of citizens; (2) Too much emphasis on the knowledge-based economy, while ignoring the importance of extensive employment opportunities; (3)"Gentrification" is encouraged. Lees, 2003); (4) uncritically supported "compact city" and "urban village".

British property has long been in short supply. Per capita land ownership in the country is small. The state control of land procedures is cumbersome, the population is in a trend of growth, and the development of new land resources is very limited. These objective facts have been highlighted in a white paper on the London city plan by the current mayor of London, Boris Johnson. According to Rightmove, the number of homes sold is at its lowest level in history, after the hottest years of 2007. New listings fell 15 per cent month-on-month, deceasing 1 per cent year on year. From the current trend, housing supply will continue to decline. At the same time, the demand for buyers is not declining, but is rising in some popular cities (Christine, 2007).

II. Introduction & background:

The UK government has taken an important step in raising the bank's benchmark interest rate, which is to curb demand through interest rate levers. Practice proves that the effect of interest rate lever is obvious under market economy condition. In 2002 and 2003, for example, housing prices skyrocketed, causing the housing price problem to extend from the economic field to the people's livelihood and began to become a social problem. To this, begin from 2004, the bank raised rates for regulating the housing market, after ten months of five interest rate hikes, the central bank benchmark interest rate from 3.5% to 4.75%, drive mortgage rates increased by 4.25% ~ 5.5% to 5.5% ~ 6.75%. Give the market a clear message that the central bank will resolutely control housing prices at the expense of other industries, such as manufacturing. By September 2004, the macro-control of housing prices had achieved initial results. House prices have started to fall, and the mood in the market has shifted. Instead in nearly two years when the economic recession in the real estate market decline rate cut is taken, for example, in October 2008 to January 2009, the bank of England cut interest rates four times in a row to promote people to buy a house, in the hope the housing boom to promote economic recovery (Mclaughlin, 2012).

Cardiff is in wales, about 200 miles west of London. Cardiff, founded in 1905 as the capital of wales, celebrated the 100th anniversary of Cardiff in 2005. Cardiff city has 12 cities with a population of 1.8 million. It is Europe's smallest capital with a population of 320,000. In terms of per capita GDP, wales is only 80 per cent of the UK's per capita GDP and is one of the poorest regions in the UK. But Mrs Canada's GDP is above the UK average and is one of the richest cities in wales. In the 1801 census, Cardiff had a population of only 1,000. In 1901, she reached 200,000 and became the world's largest coal export port. Over the past 20 years, In particular, large government and private funds have invested in Cardiff in the development projects with Cardiff bay and the waterfront. All these efforts have created a modern and successful Cardiff. The reformed Cardiff provides ground and underground infrastructure through the new land dam. The entire process is reclaimed land from the breakwater, through flood control and storage. This initiative has helped to increase the area of the waterfront to achieve the goal of improving the environment. Special attention has been paid to wildlife, fish and wildlife populations in the process. While Cardiff value associated with the new economy the skills it takes to get new jobs and labor force, and in terms of culture, entertainment, leisure, travel and tourism spending a lot of, meet the demand of the growth of the mass. In addition, housing demand, such as social welfare housing and high-end housing, has increased. The new image reflects the prosperous development of Cardiff and the high quality of life. Investment projects also focus on large community, medium and small projects. Through these efforts, the most important thing is to regain the domestic and international reputation of Cardiff.

The competition between cities is increasingly fierce, especially in the present moment of global economic integration. Cardiff cannot compete with cities such as London, Paris or Rome. Although Cardiff is the capital of wales, it has a population of just 320,000 and its development target is 450,000. For any city, the most important thing to do is to position yourself. Compared with the early construction of the urban development company of Cardiff bay in the mid-1980s, Cardiff's position has been significantly improved. All this happened in just 20 years. Only in this way can we determine how to compete with rivals such as Barcelona, cologne, Copenhagen, Liverpool, Manchester and Edinburgh. Becoming Europe's leading city is Cardiff's development goal. Mr Cardiff's future image includes a range of innovations, including a 700m pound sports village. The investment will bring 3,000 jobs, attracting 4.5 million visitors a year and creating an annual consumption of around 200 million pounds. In addition, the innovation program also includes spending about 110 million pounds on new football and football clubs, and spending 22 million pounds to support businesses, office facilities and residential construction. In addition, the government plans to build a new genetic research park, which will work closely with Cardiff university to support the study of medical related edge disciplines.

III. The Property Management Procedure in Britain:

The British land market is a Freehold Property Right System. The land is nominally owned by the British royal family, but is essentially private, so there is no "primary market" for the distribution of land use rights. The land market is dominated by "secondary market" free trade. The transaction mode is mainly through the real estate intermediary to coordinate the price of the two parties to facilitate the transaction. Local governments do not intervene directly or have direct control over land market transactions. In 1974 by the urban and rural Planning Act (Townand Country Planning Act) gives the government Planning permission, the land is privately owned, but to the land development which projects are determined by the government, which the government owns the land development rights in essence. Land development is regulated through the Planning Permission of local governments.

The UK's local government indirectly regulates the supply of housing through the issuance of planning permits. Under UK planning law, all construction, engineering, mining and other projects, or any change to existing planning purposes, should apply to the government for planning permission. Development projects without a planning permit are illegal. The planning license is valid for up to 3 years, and the developer must start construction before it expires, otherwise it will need to be reapplied. Planning license by the Local government Planning departments according to plan issued by governments at all levels of Development, the relevant Policy documents are mainly formulated by the central government's Planning Policy Guidance (Planning Policy Guidance), the Regional government Regional Planning refers to the lead (Regional Planing Guidance) and Local Development Plans formulated by the government of the city (Local Development Plans). Local development plans identify key areas of development in different areas of the city, such as restrictions on certain areas and even bans on real estate development. The planning department will not approve the issuance of a planning permit if a property developer applies for a project beyond the permitted scope. The developer can only apply to change the land use and develop the project type allowed in the local development plan. The municipal government realizes indirect control of land supply through adjustment of local development plan. Since the planning permit is legally binding, the local development plan is set by the municipal government according to the long-term development goals of the city. So its supply and control policy is very effective.

Although planning permits can effectively control the supply of certain types of real estate, their approval must be based on local development plans. Due to the adjustment of local development plan, it will take some time. Although the land supply and regulation method is effective, it cannot be synchronized with the market. When the real estate market overheated, unable to tighten the supply in time, the supply of the housing market seriously lagged behind the market demand. Municipal governments have pledged to apply for planning permits for small-scale and large-scale development projects within eight weeks and 13 weeks respectively. Government statistics show that most applications can be processed within this time frame.

IV. The Principle of UK Government Development Strategy:

2.1 Sustainable Development

In 2005, the deputy prime minister's office issued a formal planning policy statement. The document is the national planning policy of the UK government to comprehensively promote the strategy of sustainable development in the planning field. The document states the government's objectives for urban planning. The core content of sustainable development of urban planning and the main way to implement sustainable development. In general, it is clear about the basic idea of implementing sustainable development strategy in British urban planning (Carmona, 2012):

(1) sustainable development is the core principle underpinning urban planning. The country needs a transparent and effective quality planning system to achieve sustainable development and sustainable communities. its

(2) the planning itself should be sustainable. Urban planning at all levels should meet the national, regional and local sustainable development goals. The UK planning policy states that the "regional space strategy" and "local development documents" should be evaluated in the process of preparation.

(3) the main planning objectives should meet individual needs and achieve effective environmental protection. Therefore, the urban planning agency can not only be limited to development and control, but also need to monitor the effect of the implementation process and the effective promotion and reasonable adjustment in the later stage.

(4) the main ways to implement sustainable development in urban planning are still space and land use planning. However, urban planning needs to start from the relationship between man and nature and people, to establish the comprehensive development goal of economic and environmental social environment.

The sustainable development goals of different regions or regions are different to test the implementation of urban planning. In the aspect of planning and design, the city can be further strengthened through the sustainable design of the city. "Sustainable design and construction strategy guidance" has been designed in a number of areas based on the actual development of London (Imrie, 1999).

The housing policies of the last few years of the 20th century were also accompanied by changes in planning practices. Notice and policy guidelines are used more and more "open hair provides guidance for the local government and industry, mainly about the central government expected planning legislation in practice how to play a role". Planning and affordable housing provisions encourage local governments to develop their development plans. When planning decisions, the government should include affordable housing in consideration and negotiate with developers to ensure that affordable housing is included in its development plan. In terms of the interrelationship between planning and affordable housing, a further guiding principle was proposed for the revision of the issue. In rural areas, and commuters, retirees in comparison to those looking for a second home, because the local people's questions about the ability to pay more in the housing market lack of competitiveness, the local government housing stock and the recent 9 years construction of public housing quantity is greatly reduced. In order to meet unsatisfactory housing needs, rural government agencies have sought to use the statutory agreements to limit the ownership of new affordable housing to local people (Hall, 2001).

Housing demand for social housing, especially in low - and middle-income groups, is one of the important policies of the UK real estate industry. The implementation of this policy can be divided into two phases: the first stage is the public housing system represented by public housing before 1980. That is, the government invests heavily in public housing and rents it to residents at below-market rents. The second stage is the implementation of the affordable housing system since 1980. To privatize and improve its own rate. The system meets the housing needs of low-income families, key personnel and first-time homebuyers.

It may be said that residential development in the bay area has been favored by a large number of buyers, and the market has been bullish. But this argument does not take into account the factor of real estate investment, by default the homeowner is self-purchasing, ignoring the resulting large housing shortage. Residential developments in the gulf have replaced the urban fringe, which will last for years. For these seemingly positive factors, we can also be questioned: the most of the residential development of the bay area, neither create a high-quality living environment, has failed to provide convenience and accessibility of community service and necessary business facilities, also lack of sense of neighborhood. At the same time, these new housing projects have not been properly linked to existing residential areas. In the newly built area, the intersecting principle of community street network and street design has not been complied with. This phenomenon became particularly serious after the end of the CBDC in 1999 (Rowley, 1994).

The government has made important efforts to build affordable housing for middle - and low-income people. After careful consideration of the distribution of housing in the gulf government, CBDC proposed an overall supply scheme for affordable housing, and was confirmed by the city council. As early as the early 1990s, CBDC spent about 38m on social housing, striving to design schemes that looked like private housing, but this effort was not always successful (Grahamand hamand, 2001). Built in CBDC1992 ~ 2003 q 3243 housing units, there are 31 or registered clubs will have of land by the government (registered social landlords) building (CBDC, 2000 a). This is significant in terms of quantity, and the form of these social housing is more consistent with the CBDC's policy than the average private residence. In addition, housing associations will continue to promote the sustainable development strategies of the bay area to those who are reluctant to build energy-efficient homes.

V. Conclusions and recommendations to the client

In terms of real estate development projects, the traditional cost control should be considered, and the cost optimization should be realized from the time of the analysis project and the cost equilibrium relationship. In the aspect of cost control, the design stage is the basis of cost control, the construction stage is the focus of cost control, and the finishing stage is the last part of cost control. In terms of cost optimization, it is necessary to analyze the time-cost equilibrium relationship of the project, and obtain the optimal cost control goal and realize cost optimization. Cost control and cost optimization cost management indispensable two aspects (Roberts, 2004).

Reference

Christine M. E. Whitehead. (2007). Planning policies and affordable housing: England as a successful case study?. Housing Studies, 22(1), 25-44.

Mclaughlin, R. B. (2012). Land Use Regulation: Where Have We Been, Where Are We     Going?. Cities. Carmona, M. (2001). Implementing Urban Renaissance—Problems, Possibilities An Plans in South East England. Progress in Planning, 56(4), 169-250.

Rowley, G. (1994). The Cardiff Bay Development Corporation: Urban Regeneration Local Economy And Community. Geoforum, 25(3), 265-284.

Imrie, R., & Thomas, H. (1999). British Urban Policy: An Evaluation Of The Urba Development Corporations. SAGE. Hall, S. (2001). British urban policy: an evaluation of the urban development corporations, second edition, rob imrie and huw thomas (eds.) 1999. Journal of       Housing & the Built Environment, 16(1), 115-117.

Mail, W. . Studio style in prime location; apartments just released at popular Cardif development offer city centre living at an affordable price. competitionline. . Cardiff housing partnership programme (‘hpp’). Competitionline. Roberts, A., Pickernell, D., & Munday, M. C. R. (2004). Building for the future:   housing, financial services and the welsh economy. Local Economy, 19(3), 212       225.

Max Munday, David Pickernell, & Annette Roberts. (2004). Building for the future: housing-related sectors and the welsh economy. Local Economy, 19(3), 212-225.

Force, G. B. U. T., & Rogers, R. G. (2000). Towards an Urban Renaissance. Urban Task Force.

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