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The social power

2019-12-09 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The social power,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了社会权利。社会权力是马克思开创的历史唯物主义的核心概念,正确理解社会权力概念是理解马克思哲学思想的基石。社会权力是对抗性的生产关系,即人与人之间支配与被支配、统治与被统治的非理性的感性力量关系,它起源于自发分工造成的感性活动的异化。社会权力在前资本主义社会体现为土地私有权,而在资本主义社会体现为资本,资本是社会权力与物质财富的统一,是生产力与生产关系的统一。而资本发展的最大界限就是资本本身,从它的界限中会生长出否定资本的种种感性力量,从而导致资本权力的消亡,使有个性的人代替偶然性的人。

Social power is the core concept of historical materialism initiated by Marx, and a correct understanding of the concept of social power is the cornerstone of understanding Marx's philosophy. Social power is the antagonistic production relationship, that is, the irrational perceptual power relationship between people that governs and is controlled, governs and is ruled, which originates from the alienation of perceptual activities caused by spontaneous division of labor. In the pre-capitalist society, social power is embodied as private land rights, while in the capitalist society, it is embodied as capital. Capital is the unity of social power and material wealth, as well as the unity of productive forces and relations of production. And the biggest limit of capital development is capital itself, from its limit will grow a variety of perceptual power to deny capital, resulting in the disappearance of capital power, so that the person with personality to replace the accidental person.

The historical materialism initiated by Marx is a new historical ontology. By grasping the core concept of social power, we can avoid misreading historical materialism as a modern intellectual theory based on concepts and categories. Economists are talking about economic facts made of economic categories, and social power is beyond their theoretical horizon. Marx reveals the antagonistic force behind economic categories, namely social power. Marx's thought on social power belongs to historical critical science, and political power, cultural power and other powers are all derivatives of social power, which should not be confused. At present, few scholars have studied the historical materialism theory initiated by Marx and Engels from the perspective of social power. Readers of this research can refer to wang defeng's the nature and origin of social power, pan le's Marx's thought on social power and its contemporary significance. From the perspective of published papers, it is mainly about the origin of social power. However, the embodiment of social power in different stages, especially the modern embodiment of social power, namely capital power and the disappearance of capital power caused by the self-denial of capital, has not been fully studied in the academic circle. On the basis of previous scholars' research results, this paper intends to systematically analyze the origin of alienation of Marx's perceptual activities of social power, the performance in different historical development stages, and the disappearance of social power due to its own contradictions. It is of great practical significance for us to break away from the historical nihilism and the theory of communism and strengthen the theoretical confidence of marxism.

The essential existence of man in nature is perceptual existence, which is the existence of man formed by changing nature in the relationship between people, and it is historic. The perceptual existence of human is not the physical existence that drinks the blood, the physical existence does not need to create, it is the existence of a species, and the perceptual existence needs to eat, wear and live in a human way, and needs to win the freedom of human to the nature, that is, to create new perceptual freedom, all these are constantly created by human activities. Therefore, Marx believes that perceptual activity is the activity of creating human perceptual existence, which is not only the activity of changing natural objects, but also the activity of creating or changing the social relations between people. The first form of interpersonal relationship created by perceptual activities is the family, "the family is at first the only social relationship". But, Marx about family ontology sense rather than in the anthropological sense, family, namely, between husband and wife, is not the relationship between parents and children points to a biological nature, but to people the original social relations, the social relations are consciously aware of the value and meaning is to have life of perceptual ethics, not theoretical, ethics, philosophy of religion. In this emotional ethics flows life emotion, love and responsibility.

In this kind of family relationship, there exists the antagonistic relations of production hidden in the form of bud. Marx clearly pointed out in the German ideology: "ownership, its bud and initial form have appeared in the family, where the wife and children are the slaves of the husband. This slavery in the family, admittedly still very primitive and hidden, is the first form of ownership." In the later development of history, this kind of family relations, originally ethical relations and family affection, have been transformed into productive relations, which are subordinate to another more important social relations, namely productive relations, which have been developed by breaking through the scope of family ethical relations. This is because the activity of creating perceptual existence is at the same time the activity of creating perceptual needs, that is, forming perceptual freedom to nature. The reason why people need perceptual freedom is that people are the existence of time. If a person spends most of his life rushing about for survival and has no spare time for his own disposal, Marx thinks he is inferior to even a heavy-duty animal. Therefore, the strong demand for perceptual freedom will definitely prompt human beings to realize it, and this realization also means the expansion of interpersonal perceptual communication, which will surely break through the emotional ethics of the family and create a social form to preserve material wealth, namely, the production relationship. It can be seen that relations of production are inevitable. With the expansion of inter-tribal communication, namely the spread of war and trade, and the new needs arising from population growth, all these have gone beyond the scope of the family and turned to the opposite side of family ethics, that is, to social confrontation. From the very first day when it was created, the relations of production had the nature of social confrontation. It preserved social wealth by means of social confrontation. This kind of antagonistic relations of production was called "social power" by Marx.

A basic view of historical materialism is that relations of production are produced, which means the socialization and historicization of nature, while the relations of production of private ownership are irrational social power, which is not a concept or category but a relationship of perceptual power. This perceptual force is oppressive. Marx points out, "in those relations that develop the productive forces there is also a force that produces oppression. At the beginning, Marx was not clear about the nature of the relations of production as a counterforce, only that he had experienced its objectivity in the days of the rheinisette, and that it was not subject to the will of the individual, but was as dependent as the air, highlighted by material interests. Later, in the German ideology co-authored with Engels, Marx really recognized its essence. He pointed out that, "the conditions under which certain productive forces can be utilized are the conditions under which certain classes of society can exercise rule, and the social power generated by the property status of this class..." The possession of property is the core content of ownership, from which comes the social power to dominate others. Therefore, the antagonistic production relationship originated from the productive forces is essentially a kind of social power, and the production relationship at different development stages of private ownership is different social power. First of all, social power refers to the human relationship formed in the perceptual communication between people. There is no power relationship in nature, and the Wolf eating the sheep is not exercising its power, but a biological chain relationship. Secondly, social power is an irrational and non-conceptual perceptual power, that is, the power of antagonism, which is reflected in the relationship between the domination, domination and enslavement of one part of the other part of the people. Only in this way can social power truly reveal the antagonistic nature of the relations of production of private ownership. This antagonistic power relationship can be expressed in a simple concept, that is, material interests. When we use the concept of material interests, it indicates the separation and confrontation between people, because in the future, the real human society will not have the problem of material interests. Finally, the structure of the social power relationship is the economic structure of the society or the material benefit structure of the society, the expression of its political law is the legal right, politics, power, and the expression of ideas is the ideology. Marx's historical materialism can be expressed briefly in figure l: it can be seen from figure l that the rise of social power E to legal power has been proved by ideology, and legal power turns an irrational social power into a legitimate thing. In fact, legal right is the expression of the law of social power. It is the social power under the guise of concept and rationality, and it is the later ratification of the social power formed in the perceptual life. Political power is the political expression of social power. Because of this, political power is also a power of sensibility. The materialized embodiment is the army, police and prison. This is the ontological understanding that the economic foundation determines the superstructure. If we think that the right of law determines the power of society, Marx says that this is practical idealism, belonging to Kant's theory of right of law. The ontological theory that the productive forces determine the relations of production is about the origin and development of social power.

Social power grows and dissimilates from perceptual activities. The whole society is constructed and developed around social power. The interpersonal relationship in perceptual activities does not mean antagonistic relationship. Social power comes from the alienation of perceptual activities. Because of internal contradictions, perceptual activities split themselves, leading to their own alienation, making the power of the kind formed from the perceptual activities separate from the individual, beyond the individual, and in turn aggregate into the power of controlling the individual. Marx believes that the factors leading to the alienation of perceptual activities have historical inevitability. In the German ideology, he attributes this alienation to the spontaneous division of labor. Division of labor means the distribution of labor to different people. However, if the division of labor is not the result of rational negotiation, is not the result of voluntary, but spontaneous, it is spontaneous division of labor. Spontaneous division of labor is a kind of compulsory perceptual communication force, which separates from all individuals involved in communication and in turn becomes the material force dominating all individuals. As long as people want to obtain their own living materials, they must submit to this material force. Up to now, spontaneous division of labor still defines the development of capitalism, the more developed the productive forces of capital, the more developed the system of spontaneous division of labor, the two promote each other.

Marx pointed out profoundly that the common activities of people in the spontaneous division of labor must produce a kind of social force, and "this social force in the eyes of these individuals is not their own joint force, but some alien force outside them". This coercive force is neither purely natural nor purely spiritual. Marx called it "material force". In the scope of spontaneous division of labor, perceptual activities are no longer the perceptual forces of each other's creation in body and spirit, but the social relations generated from perceptual activities, that is, the relations of production, become a kind of alienated social material force, which is bound to be separated from individuals and become social power. The spontaneous division of labor also means the unequal distribution of labor and its products in terms of quality and quantity, which means the emergence of private ownership. From this property situation, social power comes into being, namely the "social power generated by the class's property status" as mentioned above. Thus it can be seen that spontaneous division of labor and private ownership are two aspects of the same thing, which are equal expressions of alienated perceptual activities. Spontaneous division of labor refers to activities, while private ownership refers to the results of activities. Therefore, Marx will not trace the root of private ownership to human nature, but to the inevitability of the initial spontaneous division of human labor. Of course, the primitive society is a natural division of labor formed by talent, physical strength, needs, etc., which is not really spontaneous division of labor. Therefore, the primitive society is public rather than private ownership. In a word, social power is the antagonistic relations of production, the unequal possession of private property, and the alienated social form of productive forces or perceptual activities. It should be noted that social power is not only a negative force, but has a fundamental role in promoting the progress of human civilization. However, such progress is progress in the form of confrontation, in which material wealth is acquired and preserved in the form of social confrontation. Therefore, social power has a non-social nature. Engels pointed out in his anti-durin essay, "without slavery, there would be no Greek state, no Greek art and science. Marx also pointed out profoundly in the poverty of philosophy: "no confrontation, no progress. This is the rule of civilization to this day."

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