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The influence of cartesian philosophy on the dualistic thinking of western philosophy

2019-12-05 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The influence of cartesian philosophy on the dualistic thinking of western philosophy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了笛卡尔哲学对西方哲学二元思维的影响。在笛卡尔之后,许多哲学家为了避免笛卡尔哲学体系中二元论的局限性,而采取各种方法进行研究,从而丰富了西方哲学思想的二元思维。马勒伯朗士提出取消自然为独立的实体,宣扬绝对的唯心主义,霍布斯提出取消精神为独立的实体,肯定唯物主义。莱布尼茨的思想把神学与唯理论的哲学结合起来,沃尔夫把把唯理论推向了形而上学独断论的深渊。最终以实践论为代表的马克思主义辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义真正解决了这一问题。

The development history of modern philosophy is the transcendence of philosophical thinkers in the process of self-denial and revision, so as to realize the philosophical scientific explanation of various phenomena in the current world. Cartesian philosophy started the history of modern western philosophy, and what it wants to solve is the basic understanding of the absolute certainty and universal unity of "things", which is shown in his philosophy of reflection, skepticism and other dualistic philosophy. Through the in-depth analysis of cartesian philosophy spirit, we can clearly understand the evolution and development history of western philosophy dual thinking, so as to judge and summarize the development of western philosophy and open the road of western modern philosophy dual thinking.

Descartes in an era of the knowledge renewal, and therefore the most important foundation of its ideas is to review every disciplines and tries to put forward a new idea, the course of the study he pay more attention to the reflection of the problems of philosophy methodology and apply in physics mechanical thought to its philosophical system, provide the legitimacy and possibility for the development of modern philosophy. In Descartes' view, the function of philosophy is not only limited to the leading role of real life, but also embodied in the role played by its various components. It is emphasized that the unity of all sciences lies in the exploration of methodology, and philosophy should provide criteria for the evaluation of scientific research. Descartes regarded mathematical method as the basic method for scientific research, and believed that rational knowledge obtained through comprehensive analysis was the convincing content, so only by using this method could he realize his rational appeal, and thus judge and summarize the worries and losses of philosophical research.

Descartes' philosophy of mechanism initiated a rational discussion of research methodology in western philosophy. First, it completed the transformation from Aristotle's natural philosophy to cartesian mechanical philosophy, which was the most important ideological change in the development of modern western philosophy. Although there are explanations of mechanical theory in previous natural philosophy, Descartes' mechanical theory is not a technical application of established physical knowledge as in previous studies, but more a discussion of methodology and the application of mechanical principles to solve practical problems. The second is to realize the combination of traditional philosophy and natural philosophy. In the philosophy of Descartes' philosophy in the traditional metaphysics and physics thoughts of natural philosophy is complementary, thinking mechanical physics problems by using philosophy thinking, thus forming a unique mechanistic philosophy, which emphasizes the foundation of metaphysics, and pay attention to the further research in the aspect of methodology, the formation of binary thinking for western philosophy laid a foundation.

In Descartes' philosophy in the world, is not considered to be justice principle or common sense things are not as reliable factors to explore the truth, and his philosophical thought with heavy skepticism of ideas, pay attention to review previous knowledge system, based on this, advances with the philosophy of self characteristic, thus on the basis of rationalism to ensure that the philosophy of science "is demonstrably sex". One is that all science needs to be based on reason, and only in this way can knowledge be "certain". On this issue, the cartesian to "dreams" as an example to explain, emphasize the people in the dream to dream of what happens when everything is real, but actually, these things are illusory, does not represent the real world, and it is this feature enables to distinguish between reality and dream, the ultimate goal of philosophy of science is to find the exact knowledge. Second, cartesian doubt is not selective, but all objects are included in the scope of doubt. It is believed that people's own feelings are unreliable and cannot be the basis for acquiring rational knowledge, while People's Daily activities seem to be certain, but dream activities are different from the actual situation, and the mathematical method is clear and definite, which can be used as the basic content of various researches.

Descartes' philosophy seems to be stuck in a cycle, namely on the basis of the doubts about everything seems can't find can justify a reliable scientific content, which provokes questions for binary thinking rational thinking, problems appear constantly, and become important guarantee to promote the development of philosophy and a variety of social science. After Descartes, philosophers in the development history of modern western philosophy tried to use speculative thinking to understand and transform the world, and at the same time to abandon the possibility of self-perception, dreams and other non-certainty factors, so as to realize my unquestioning thinking.

Descartes philosophy has a profound criticism color, is the reflection and subversion of past philosophy, the philosophy of science "is demonstrably sexual content" particular concern, think that these basic content is to ensure that the philosophy to establish an integral part of, for those with an established beliefs, perception and feeling, need to make a thorough cleaning, and discusses the "thinking" and "in" binary relation. Cartesian philosophy starts from the doubt of things, and emphasizes that the foundation of its theoretical certainty lies in the content of people's thinking, namely the concept of "thinking", that is, people's understanding of their own existence. This kind of knowledge makes people clear the basic object of their study, so as to promote the deep understanding of philosophical content. Descartes theory about the "think" and "in" is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is "thinking" is the man's thoughts can be used to feel the most directly the objective activity, through the understanding of the objective activity prove things and the real existence of self, and then use the real thing to know and transform the whole scientific world. The second is that "zai" starts from the spirit of doubt, arouses the understanding of self through continuous practice, and understands the meaning of self in the process of gradual reflection.

Descartes' discussion of "thinking" and "being" is mainly focused on the understanding of the field of ideas and methodology, reflecting the clarity and authenticity of the subject of "thinking" and "being", and then deducing the "certainty" of his philosophical thinking system. The influence of Descartes' thoughts of "thinking" and "being" on the dualistic thinking of western philosophy lies in the fact that it has triggered the problematic thinking of later philosophical studies. A Descartes theory about the "think" and "in" demonstrates the dual nature of the world, this argument is a kind of transcendental theory, or the need for the philosophy theory of argument, if it's need to demonstrate, through what way argument to ensure its effectiveness, it is worth exploring the philosophical foundation of the problem. Second, the dualistic world studied by Descartes is the real dualistic world, so his philosophical theory is not only limited to the confirmation of subject status and the excavation of self-consciousness, but also more important to guide people to know the real world more truly and abundantly.

Descartes' theory of unity of mind and matter opposes mind and matter, which is characterized by obvious dualism. It acknowledges the rational function and its basic function in the process of cognition, but it is difficult to justify the balance between mind and matter, which is also the defect of his theoretical research. Taking the universal doubt as the starting point, Descartes found the first unquestionable principle, namely "thinking" and "being", thus elevating human subject consciousness to the height of the absolute starting point of the whole philosophy. This also leaves some questions for future philosophers to study, that is, how to unify the metaphysical characteristics of the philosophical system created by them with rationalism, that is, how to play a greater role in practice.

After Descartes, in order to avoid the limitation of dualism in cartesian philosophy, many philosophers adopted various methods to study it, thus enriching the dualism of western philosophy. Malebranche proposed to abolish nature as an independent entity, advocating absolute idealism, while Hobbes proposed to abolish spirit as an independent entity, affirming materialism. Spinoza replaced cartesian dualism with psychosomatic parallelism, and proposed to make both spirit and matter the expression of absolute entity god or nature, trying to solve this problem from the unity of the two. Leibniz's thought combined the philosophy of theology and rationalism, and wolff pushed rationalism into the abyss of metaphysical doviness. Finally, the dialectical materialism and historical materialism of marxism represented by the theory of practice really solved this problem.

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