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The impact of microplastics on Marine ecology

2019-11-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The impact of microplastics on Marine ecology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了微塑料对海洋生态的影响。微塑料通常被认为是粒径小于5mm的塑料纤维、颗粒或者薄膜。在水体的任意层次都曾检测出微塑料的存在。微塑料对于水体的影响不容忽视。从现有模式来看,微塑料在水体表面会遮盖住阳光,影响海洋中藻类的光合作用,使得海洋水体的自净能力下降,在水体深处,使得海水成分变复杂,生物环境变苛刻。在带来物理污染的同时,微塑料可能还会带来复合污染。

microplastics,微塑料对海洋生态的影响,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The 21st century is the ocean century. As the ocean becomes a haven for human waste, a bigger environmental problem looms -- what to do about the ecological damage. Plastic was one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, but with the extensive use of plastic products, plastic waste gradually became a burden of economic development and environmental protection. The concept of "microplastics" was first proposed in the UK in 2004, and the results of the testing of microplastics in the world's oceans have also alarmed and threatened humans. From existing observation and understanding of the micro plastic, data collection and analysis of micro plastic water concentration, although does not draw micro plastic threat to human survival and development degree of certainty, but in view of the present serious environmental problems, put forward from the source to reduce pollution, the development of circular economy, perfect the system of public participation methods to relieve the micro plastic to further deterioration of the Marine ecological measures.

Microplastics, as the name suggests, are tiny plastics. There is no accurate definition of microplastics in academic circles, but it is generally regarded as plastic fiber, particle size less than 5mm, or thin film, which is figuratively described as "PM2.5" in the ocean. The important components of microplastics are low density polyethylene and high density polyethylene. According to the particle size of microplastics, they can be divided into large microplastics and small microplastics. Small microplastics have attracted more attention due to their larger surface area and stronger mobility.

The sources of microplastics are complex and extensive. Household garbage is the main source, the realization of scrub, exfoliation and other deep cleaning of daily chemicals often contain a lot of microplastics, including toothpaste, facial milk, contact lenses also contain microplastics. The waste water generated by washing fiber clothes in the washing machine contains a lot of microplastics, which will flow into the water body along with the washing waste water and eventually enter the ocean. In terms of land source, the residual plastic waste of human activities on the beach will be weathered and fission under natural conditions to form microplastics, and the Marine fishing tools will be decomposed into microplastics by seawater erosion.

Microplastics are widely distributed. Using the statistical method of the law of large Numbers, a large number of studies show that the probability of microplastics appearing in samples is 100%. In 2017, China discovered microplastics in organisms captured by its manned submersible jiaolong at a depth of 4500m in the ocean. Foreign researchers detected microplastics in seals in the Antarctic subarchipelago. Microplastics have also been found in freshwater lakes, arctic sea ice and deep in the Pacific Ocean. Not only that, the researchers found that microplastics also exist in living organisms, mineral water, edible salt, human feces and other carriers. Microplastics can be said to be all over the world, need to arouse human attention.

Microplastics have been detected at any level of water. The influence of microplastics on water body cannot be ignored. According to the current model, microplastics will cover the sunlight on the surface of water body, affect the photosynthesis of algae in the ocean, and reduce the self-purification ability of Marine water body. In the deep water body, the composition of seawater becomes complex and the biological environment becomes harsh. While bringing physical pollution, microplastics may also bring compound pollution. Due to its strong hydrophobicity and other characteristics, during the migration process, it can adsorb POPs, heavy metals and other harmful substances in the ocean. Through material circulation, it may cause pollution to living things.

Microplastics are enriched, which can affect the spawning amount and reproductive ability of aquatic organisms. Ranwen conducted experiments with oysters through sampling analysis, and found that the average uptake rate of microplastics in oyster samples was 86.38%, and the range was 73.91% ~ 95.65%. Although there are experimental variables of microplastics with different particle sizes at different stations, from the objective data, microplastics become sediments, which will be enriched and permeated in organisms and affect the development and growth of organisms. Due to the biological network, the organisms at the top of the food chain are more likely to be affected by the accumulation of toxins. Birds and mammals that like aquatic life will be affected more and more.

The existence of a large number of microplastics in the ocean will pose an increasing threat to Marine life. The government attaches importance to Marine ecological protection and invests more money in Marine environmental protection. From 2013 to 2018, plastic waste in China accounted for more than 70 percent of Marine garbage. Because plastic is hard to degrade and waste emissions continue to increase, the amount of microplastics in the ocean is higher and higher, the investment of capital and manpower will be more and more. However, the existing technology is not efficient and professional in monitoring microplastics, which leads to many difficulties in research.

With daphnia magna or algae as test subjects, a large number of scholars studied the influence of microplastics on the toxicity of aquatic organisms by selecting polyethylene, the most widely used microplastics, and analyzed the potential risks of microplastics in water environment through the enrichment degree of PE in microorganisms. Jia jing tested daphnia magna under PE particles of particle size of 10 ~ 20 micus under polyethylene test solution of exposure concentration of 25mg/L, namely 5×104particles/ml. The results showed that the maximum particle intake of daphnia magna was achieved at 1h exposure, and the particle number was stable at 61-91particles /ml as the exposure time prolonged. It was also found that daphnia magna could rapidly absorb and remove polyethylene particles. Ma et al. found that the 48-ec50 of 50nm microplastics to daphnia magna was 15.13mg/L, and other micron plastic particles could enter into daphnia magna and could also be discharged spontaneously without physical injury. At present, experiments on microplastics acting alone on test organisms have shown that without interaction with other organic pollutants, the toxicity effect of microplastics is minimal, and the growth of organisms is inhibited only when the concentration is as high as 25mg/L. But the lab's dose goes well beyond the amount of microplastics in natural water. The environmental risks of microplastics have been exaggerated, and low exposure concentrations of microplastics do not appear to have significant risks in current experiments. Secondly, studies on the combined toxicity effects of microplastics and organic pollutants have gradually become the focus of attention. Yin cen found through experiments that, compared with single microplastics, the toxicity of polystyrene combined with organic compounds increased, and with the increase of PS concentration, the toxicity to daphnia magna increased.

China is the world's largest user of plastic, accounting for one fourth of the world's total output. At the same time, China also produces the most Marine plastic waste in the world, emitting about 2.4 million tons of Marine plastic waste every year, accounting for about one third of the global total. Plastic products have a large production capacity, short service life, and the recycling and treatment mechanism after abandonment is basically not perfect. Because microplastics is a new topic in recent years, the corresponding regulations and systems have not been determined. Improve the detection technology is the key point, first of all, we must strengthen the research by the representative of the sample, and second, to establish a set of test analysis of samples from sampling and pretreatment to the whole process of standardized operating procedures, develop more powerful library retrieval algorithm, improve the efficiency and accuracy of detection operation, scientific, and finally to provide a more detailed analysis of nano plastic method, break analysis detection based on simple counting statistics.

Above all, advocate circular economy, follow 5R principle. Circular economy is essentially a kind of ecological economy. We should make efficient and circular use of resources according to the principle of "reduction, reuse and recycling", and make a kind of feedback process, which is different from the one-way flow of traditional economy.

Next, must diversity manages. The ocean is a circular, large and global system that needs effective governance through coordination and cooperation among multiple parties. In signing multilateral environmental agreements, China and developed countries should work together to protect the Marine environment. We should put forward the view that those who are capable should bear more responsibility, and polluters should be treated first. At the same time in the unwritten provisions of their own commitment to regional coordination to solve the problem of Marine plastic waste. The state and government have been major players in reducing plastic pollution. China does not have a special Marine garbage bill. It can improve relevant laws to clarify the responsibility and obligation of the state, local and individual for plastic pollution and issue corresponding measures. According to the actual situation, there is no need to formulate a law and regulation to restrict microplastics, and supplementary provisions can be added through relevant laws.

Finally, the public participation system should be improved. Compared with ordinary pollutants, the public has little understanding of microplastics. In the measures related to microplastics, citizens are encouraged to actively express their opinions, enhance their awareness and increase their participation. Through the organization of large-scale publicity and education activities, improve public awareness of microplastics, change the coastal people's excessive use of plastic products and litter plastic products, advocate the general public to refuse to use any products containing "microplastics".

First, through the civil society, to achieve the bottom-up reduction of Marine pollution control effect. Germany's dual-track recycling system is a good example. On the issue of Marine plastic waste, different classes represent different positions and can adopt different approaches and ideologies. Community groups or ngos can have different impacts on governance, which may change government regulations and industry policies. In modern society, it is obviously impractical not to use plastics. What can be done is to change the use of plastics from pre-production to post-production. The production of degradable plastic products or use other substances instead, for example, in the selection of packaging, try to use paper materials, at the same time, after the use of classification treatment, increase its recycling efforts. All plastic waste must be treated and reused in terms of matter and energy.

Secondly, reduce plastic waste at source by means of market measures through corporate responsibility. Corporate society is responsible for the r&d, sales and life cycle of plastic products. Companies should consider the sustainable use of plastic packaging and products as part of their corporate social responsibility. In order to establish a good corporate image, packaging materials can be adjusted and new technologies can be developed to achieve recycling and reuse.

Finally, reduce microplastic pollution through public groups themselves. Citizens know little about microplastics, but stay on the concept of plastic waste. Most of them do not know the existence of "microplastics" and do not pay attention to the harm brought by plastics. Consumers are accustomed to using plastic products and have low awareness of environmental protection. They will unconsciously produce more plastic wastes in life, which will bring pressure to the environment. In daily habits, consumers consciously resist the invasion of microplastics and improve their environmental quality. For example, reduce the use of disposable plastic, own environmentally friendly chopsticks, refuse to use disposable tableware; Use a cloth bag or paper bag when traveling to shopping; When buying clothes, try to choose cotton, hemp, silk and other natural materials; When washing clothes, do not overuse detergent and softener.

The problem of Marine plastics is increasingly prominent and has been paid attention by more and more scholars. For microplastics, the global concern is not only in the level of scientific research, but also extends to the environment, resources, economy, politics and other aspects. The United Nations environment conference listed microplastics as one of the major global environmental issues in 2016. Microplastics pose a potential threat to Marine life and are also involved in the governance of terrestrial and Marine macrocyclic ecosystems. At present, most people believe that microplastics will also cause harm to human body, and it is urgent to curb it. However, there is no sufficient theory and data to standardize microplastics, which makes it impossible to compare and evaluate the impact of microplastics, and only bold conjecture can be put forward. At the same time, it is not scientific to talk about toxicity without dose. Therefore, before making clear how much threat microplastics pose to human body, we should treat microplastics rationally and prove the fact through scientific research. What can be done now is to make bold assumptions based on the existing inference, minimize the generation of microplastics, prevent the generation of microplastics from the source, and protect the Marine environment and Marine ecology.

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