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The development of Japanese economy

2019-11-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The development of Japanese economy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了日本经济的发展。长期以来,日本一直处于发达国家行列,经济结构较为成熟,始终保持国民富裕,社会贫富差距较小以及享誉世界的高国民素质。国家的科技创新水平决定了该国产业在全球价值链中的水平和地位。日本在医疗技术、新能源、机器人等领域处于世界领先水平。在尖端基础科学研究方面,日本远胜于发展中国家。另外,日本的贫富差距较小,基尼系数为0.32左右,医疗条件在世界处于领先水平,是全球居民最长寿的国家之一。日本人务实认真,把工作当成毕生的职业,精益求精。

After the World War II, Japan's economic development model led by the government was full of vitality. The burst of economic vitality had a strong appeal in the international community. However, with the United States and Japan in more than 30 years of trade friction as a turning point, Japan's economic development advantage gradually lost, from success to loss. Since the 1980 s, the Japanese government to accept the plan to promote the privatization reform, Japan's economic transformation has been through more than 20 years, the "plaza accord" of the agreed have greatly stimulated the Japanese economy "bubble", after the economic development of all show weakness, GDP growth in the low for a long time, appear even negative growth, the outside world is called "lost twenty years". Against the background of Sino-Us trade frictions, it is very necessary to study and summarize the experience and deficiencies of Japan's economic and social development in order to clarify the prospect direction and path selection of China's economic transformation.

For a long time, Japan has been in the ranks of developed countries, with a relatively mature economic structure, and has always maintained a rich population, a small gap between the rich and the poor in society and a high national quality that enjoys a good reputation in the world. These aspects are still worthy of our study.

The level of scientific and technological innovation of a country determines the level and position of its industry in the global value chain. In terms of the number of the top 100 global innovative enterprises, in 2015, 40 Japanese enterprises surpassed the United States, and in 2016, China had a breakthrough of 0. In the latest list of 2018, only 3 Chinese enterprises were listed, with a big gap. Japan is in the world leading level in medical technology, new energy, robotics and other fields. In terms of the proportion of r&d investment, the proportion of r&d investment and GDP in Japan was nearly 3.7% in 2018, much higher than China's 2.18%. From the perspective of scientific research, since 2000, Japan has won 18 Nobel prizes in the field of natural science, while China has only one. In terms of cutting-edge basic scientific research, Japan is far better than me. What's more, the respect for science and technology, education is worth learning in our country, the professor in Japan is the most respectable identity, social status is extremely high, the largest denomination Wan Yuanri notes are the characters on the Japanese educator and thinker, five thousand yen on the characters is a famous Japanese writer, one thousand yuan money above characters is a famous Japanese biologist.

Japan's environmental protection law system is very perfect, from the design to the niche of garbage classification, processing all have clear rules, these policies based on sufficient public consultation, the local government, according to the principle of recyclable garbage classification method of different, the whole society members have garbage sorting recycling environmental protection consciousness, and highly consciously abide by relevant regulations. For example, the categories of garbage classification vary from 2 to 150 in different parts of Japan, but they are all the result of local consultation. For another example, dustbins are rarely seen in the streets of Japan, but the road surface is extremely clean. Local people once said that "a dustbin is not necessarily clean, but it may be cleaner without a dustbin". The cleaner's bin has many different bags containing different kinds of garbage. Garbage disposal in Japan has grown into a complete industry, such as panasonic environmental technology center, ATC life eternal industry, showing a lot of garbage recycling made of all kinds of finished products, more importantly, Japanese companies are scrambling to miraculously is shown to the world its environmental technologies, with their own products can get green logo for pride, is also to attract consumers of its products.

In 2017, the ratio of three industries in Japan was 1.2:26.7:72.1, with a highly developed service sector. The urbanization rate reached 93%, a relatively high level in the world. Japan has a small gap between the rich and the poor, with a gini coefficient of about 0.32, leading the world in medical conditions, and one of the countries with the longest life expectancy in the world. Japanese pragmatic and serious, work as a lifelong career, excellence, such as in sakai city traditional assembly hall, some traditional industries such as manufacturing knives, dyeing cloth, making snacks, many workers said they do this industry for more than 30 years, for consumers to produce a good product is their pursuit.

Just as its bright spot is very outstanding, the weakness of Japanese economic development is also very conspicuous.

In 2018, Japan's population over 65 accounted for more than 28 percent, reaching 34 million, and the number of centenarians exceeded 70,000. At the same time, the total population of Japan is declining, with the population decreasing by more than 400,000 every year. The trend is intensifying, with the Japanese government projecting that by 2055, 40 percent of the population will be over 65, and the population will shrink from 127 million to 90 million. In the streets of Japan, in the parking lot, shopping malls, supermarkets often encounter white-haired old people still stick to their posts, hard work. The aging problem has not only deprived Japan of its "demographic dividend", but also significantly increased the social burden, with more than a third of government spending on social security such as pension and medical insurance. Huge pension spending has greatly increased the fiscal burden, with Japan's government debt as a share of GDP reaching 238 per cent by 2018, the highest in the world. The plight of "high debt" makes the industrial policy that once made outstanding contributions to Japan's economic development unsustainable. Many industries lack government financial support, and the economic vitality declines. Constrained by the size of the debt, "abenomics", which focuses on ultra-normal monetary easing, may not work.

After World War II, the United States took over Japan in an all-round way, and all Japanese people had the tendency of "worshiping foreign things and faoring the United States" and obeying the orders of the United States. On the premise that it is in the interests of the United States, Japan can get support and develop rapidly, but on the premise that it touches the interests of the United States, it is vulnerable to the containment of the United States and its development is affected. Such as more than 30 years in a trade war with the us, the Japanese government from cotton yarn, steel, automobile, semiconductor and other industries all compromise, panic under threat in the United States, is the nose, the government macroeconomic regulation and control policy appear a series of errors, prematurely fully open the domestic financial market for privatization reform, further boosting the economic bubble, economic development has been restricted. In addition, because Japan imports a large number of American agricultural products, which severely hit the country's primary industry, agricultural development is withered, it can be said that the Japanese jobs in the hands of americans. Under the background of sino-us trade frictions, Japan also imports a large amount of agricultural products from the us, such as soybeans and corn, which exceed its own needs, for resale to a third country, as required by the us government. By forcing Japan to carry out privatization reform, the United States comprehensively seized Japan's right to economic development, and Japan became an important link in the world economic system with the United States as the core and attached to the American economy.

After World War II, in order to catch up with Europe and the United States, Japan gradually formed a government-led economic development model. Under the strategy of "official property complex", industrial policy, lifetime employment system and export-oriented, Japan has obvious advantages. But with the compromise to the United States, since the implementation of the neoliberal reform, due to cultural traditions, customs, human physical differences, in the free market economy, the advantages are becoming obstacles. For example, under the "official property complex", Banks and enterprises share shares with each other, and enterprises have fixed upstream and downstream suppliers and fixed capital circulation channels. The "relational" enterprise system makes enterprises relatively closed, which leads to internalization and exclusivity of transactions, and lacks the mechanism of free competition and survival of the fittest. Again, such as, Japan's annual work series system, the idea of lifetime employment has limited the talent flow and abnormality is promoted, especially the technical personnel is relatively conservative, are used to carry on themselves, the technical problems of lack of communication with the outside world, is not conducive to technological innovation, the promotion mechanism of "seniority" director is unfavorable to stimulate the entrepreneurial passion, and the advantage of market competition, efficiency "in the traditional Japanese corporate culture is difficult to effectively play a role. The younger generation in Japan has gradually become desireless, lacking both a strong desire for wealth and a longing for family, and is entering into a "low-desire society". The Japanese government lacks effective means to deal with these institutional problems caused by the transformation of the system.

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