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International division of labor and international trade order

2019-10-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- International division of labor and international trade order,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际分工与国际贸易秩序。国际分工是指世界上各国之间劳动分工。它是社会生产力发展到一定阶段的产物,国际贸易是为国际化分工的一种交换形式。各国际贸易经济体参与国际贸易需遵循的规则与规范就是国际贸易秩序,国际分工是国际贸易秩序的决定性因素。生产力推动国际分工的发展,进而促进国际贸易秩序的演变。科学技术是最重要的生产力,工业革命开始于能源革命,每一次能源革命将引发工业革命。推动生产力的进步,形成新的国际分工格局,推动国际贸易秩序的演变。

International division of labor is the foundation of international trade and international order. International division of labor develops with the development of productivity, thus promoting the development of international trade. Whoever dominates international division of labor will dominate international trade order. The unequal nature of the international division of labor system continues to this day. Since the great geographical discovery, the international division of labor order has been dominated by developed countries, and for a long time, the dominant force will still be the developed countries in Europe and America.

International division of labor refers to the division of labor between countries in the world. It is the product that social productivity develops certain level, international trade is a kind of exchange form for internationalization division of labor. International trade order is the rule and norm that each international trade economy needs to follow when participating in international trade. International division of labor is the decisive factor of international trade order.

Productivity promotes the development of international division of labor, and then promotes the evolution of international trade order. Science and technology are the most important productive forces. The industrial revolution began with the energy revolution, and each energy revolution will lead to the industrial revolution. Promote the progress of productive forces, form a new pattern of international division of labor, and promote the evolution of the international trade order.

The formation and development of international division of labor is a long process in the development history of human society. Division of labor originated from primitive society, it was born in the process of production. The three social divisions of labor in human history have all promoted the development of productive forces. However, the social division of labor at that time was only a low level of regional division of labor. With the development of productive forces, social division of labor began to transcend national boundaries, linked the whole world together economically, and gradually formed international specialized production and cooperation. Up to now, the evolution of international division of labor has gone through five stages: germination, development, initial formation, development and deepening. The changes in each stage have also formed the corresponding international trade order.

The first international division of labor was marked by the great discovery of geography, which socialized and internationalized the division of labor and transformed it into an international division of labor. Before the "great geographical discovery" of the division of labor is limited area division of labor, and after the "great geographical discovery" with the new air route opened up, the market to further expand the scope of, at that time, trade area from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast, and the 16th century began to develop large colonies, and the conditions for the international division of labor, it established the early form of international division of labor and the international division of labor initially, countries and colonies of international division of labor system. For example, triangular trade was a typical form of international division of labor at that time. Since there was no industrial revolution at that time, the international division of labor was still based on the natural economy of each country, with obvious regional limitations.

In this stage, a highly unequal international trade order was formed, dominated by the dominant power, with the colonies forced to participate. Asia, Africa and the Americas were colonized by western European countries, leaving them far behind the developed countries in international trade to begin with. Western European countries regard international trade as a zero-sum game, amass gold and silver wealth through trade surpluses, and aggravate the inequality and injustice of the international trade order.

From the 18th century to the 1960s, the first industrial revolution greatly promoted the development of social productivity, and the development of the machine industry formed an international division of labor based on the world market. During this period, the international division of labor was the division of labor between capitalist industrial countries and agricultural countries. Britain was the first to complete the industrial revolution. The rapid development of productivity made it the center of the whole international division of labor and monopolized international trade. At that time, the world economy was centered on industrial countries, especially Britain. During this period, the international division of labor benefited from the capitalist mode of production in the big machine industry and laid a material foundation for the development of the international division of labor.

During this period, British capitalist industry gained rapid development, high productivity, low product price, and was in a favorable position in international competition. It advocated free trade, which enabled British manufacturing industry to gain access to the broad market. Through free trade and the power of the machinery industry, Britain turned the backward countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America into its own sales market, making them an agricultural country providing only agricultural and sideline products. This unfair international division of labor and trade order centered on Britain did not benefit the agricultural countries based on natural conditions, but made the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer.

The second industrial revolution took place in the late 19th century. Electric power promoted the development of productivity and the output of capital, and led to the formation of the international division of labor. At this stage, formed a relatively complete system of the international industrial division of labor, the center of the international division of labor from the UK extends to the major capitalist countries, such as the United States, Germany, France and other countries, in this period, the industrial production are mainly concentrated in North America, Europe, Japan, raw materials and food production are mainly concentrated in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Under the situation of international division of labor, the international trade order dominated by European and American countries has strengthened the interdependence among countries. However, as all countries have completed the industrial revolution, the international market has become more competitive and contradictions in the world market have increased.

After the World War II, the third scientific and technological revolution was marked by atomic energy, computer and space technology, which also led to the generation of a series of new industries, promoting the growth of productivity and the international division of labor into a new stage. The international division of labor presents many new features different from the past: the "horizontal" international division of labor replaces the traditional "vertical" division of labor, and specialization has become the mainstream in the cooperation between industrial production. The international division of labor between industrial sectors is transformed into the international division of labor within the industry. Vertical, horizontal, mixed and other systems of division of labor coexist.

In the international division of labor after the end of the World War II, the United States dominated the establishment of the general agreement on tariffs and trade led by the United States as the framework of multilateral trade agreements and institutions. This is the cornerstone of world trade, and its role cannot be replaced. At the same time, a variety of bilateral and regional trade rules have also emerged, the most important of which are the North American free trade area, the European Union and asean. At the same time, RTA and FTA have emerged, but the important leader of international division of labor is still the United States. Since the 1970s, however, America's role in global trade has declined. The United States has become the initiator of many protectionist measures in its own interest. The United States fully implements trade unilateralism through comprehensive trade law, which brings severe challenges to the multilateral trading system and impacts the previous bilateral trade rules and the "spaghetti bowl" phenomenon formed by multilateral trade rules. However, the current international trade rules are still dominated by the United States, and the interests of developing countries cannot be well protected. Thus, a country's productivity, economic capacity and scientific and technological level directly determine its position in the international division of labor.

Since the 1980s, with the continuous deepening of science, technology and economic globalization, driven by various factors, the international division of labor has gradually evolved into an international division of labor based on global value chains for developed countries, newly industrialized countries and other developing countries.

Due to the transformation of international division of labor from inter-industry to intra-industry, under the form of international division of labor based on global value chain, the status of a country or region in international division of labor depends not only on the final product it produces, but also on the links in the value chain where the product is produced. Industrial products can be divided into stages of the value chain: primary, semi-finished, components, capital goods and consumer goods. Developed countries has competitive advantage in the intermediate goods and capital goods, they mainly produce high-tech products, in the international division of labor to produce high value-added components and capital goods, although they are also affected by the product life cycle, in comparative advantage, the developed countries of high and new technology products and high value-added production of competitive advantage has fallen. However, developed countries are still at the upstream of the industrial chain, playing a leading role. The advantage of the newly industrialized countries is that they only produce final consumer goods. At present, in the international division of labor, the competitiveness of newly industrialized countries has been improved, but the development is unbalanced, while the primary products of other developing countries are still at the bottom of the global value chain despite their competitive advantages. This period of international division of labor and international trade order still has not changed its nature of inequality, developed countries dominate the international division of labor pattern, inequality within the international division of labor, caused the value transfer, developed countries are located in the center of the international division of labor system, the exchange of high value-added products, monopoly the rules of the world economy. It also protects trade through various forms of trade barriers and anti-dumping, suppresses emerging industrial countries and other developing countries, and exploits most of the economic interests of other countries.

For a long time to come, the international division of labor based on the global value chain will still be the main form. Developed countries control the upper end of the value chain and take the leading position in the international division of labor. So they dominate the evolution of the international trade order.

Driven by the new energy revolution, the fourth industrial revolution is coming, the international economic environment has changed, some new problems and phenomena have emerged, national boundaries have gradually weakened, and multinational companies have become the main carrier of the world economy. With the further development of economic globalization and the transfer of international industries led by transnational corporations, the offshore service outsourcing based on global value chain is taking shape. In the future, the fourth industrial revolution will take place, which will be characterized by the participation of the new generation of information technologies such as big data and cloud computing, which will promote the decomposition, integration and innovation of global value chains, and the added value of each link will be changed. Facing the reconstruction of global value chain, countries are faced with opportunities and challenges. The scientific and technological progress brought about by the fourth industrial revolution is conducive to promoting industrial backflow in developed countries, which will inevitably affect the international division of labor. In addition, in the future, the international division of labor in the emerging industrial countries will be improved, and the internal and external differences of transnational corporations will also become an important part of the international division of labor.

China's position in the international division of labor system is constantly changing with the country's competitiveness and economic strength. Before the founding of new China, China was a country oppressed and enslaved in the division of labor system between the suzerainty and the colonial countries. After the founding of new China, China actively participated in the international division of labor and took advantage of its comparative advantages to develop China's economy. In 1991, after the reform and opening up, China's foreign trade export volume ranked 15th in the major trading countries and regions of the world, since 2010, ranked first, among the world's top ten one of power, but due to China's current economic development level is relatively backward, and in the international division of labor in the global value chain of processing and assembling of the low level stage, the economic efficiency is not high. China must move beyond the low-value-added manufacturing dilemma, shift from scale manufacturing to value creation, and build a global division of labor network dominated by Chinese companies. In order to conform to the development trend of the fourth industrial revolution, accelerate the development of intelligent manufacturing, build a division of labor system with "local enterprises" as the main chain, actively participate in the reconstruction of global trade rules, promote China's position in the global value chain, and gain more benefits from international division of labor.

In the global value chain, the supply and demand relationship and cooperation between countries have formed a relatively stable organizational system in all aspects of labor chain division of labor. In the short term, the international division of labor cannot be subverted or reshaped. So for a long time the developed countries will still be in the leading position of the international division of labor system. However, as an emerging industrial country, China's economic strength is constantly rising and it has a relatively complete industrial system, which means that China has the productive forces of wealth and will have the strength to be one of the dominant players in the international division of labor system and trade order in the future.

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