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Liberalization and regulation of trade in services in France

2019-10-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Liberalization and regulation of trade in services in France,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了法国的服务贸易自由化与监管。早年,法国的对外经济也不是很繁荣。但在二战之后,为了更好地发展经济,法国开始制定对外开放措施,发展服务贸易。法国在服务贸易方面实施自由化政策的同时,也制定了十分严格的监管法律法规用来保障贸易自由化的顺利进行,主要体现在WTO多边协定、欧盟的一些规定与多边双边协议中。自由化与监管之间是相互作用的,随着第三次科技革命爆发,互联网与大量跨国企业的影响使得经济全球化趋势明显,世界服务贸易发展加速。

As a recognized trade power, France accounts for a large proportion of foreign trade, occupies an important position in the national economic system, and has been in a surplus in trade in services, which is more significant after its accession to the European Community. As a country with developed market economy, France has a very strict supervision system while implementing free trade, especially in the protection of free trade, which can be used as a reference for the development of China's market economy.

The so-called liberalization of service trade means that in foreign trade, the government of a country makes use of laws, bilateral agreements or international terms to relax the management of the flow of personnel, capital, goods and other goods related to services among countries, expand the access of its own service market, so as to enable the free flow of services among countries. Liberalization of trade in services is not without restrictions, but is carried out under a strict regulatory regime. Liberalisation and regulation interact. With the outbreak of the third scientific and technological revolution, the influence of the Internet and a large number of transnational enterprises has made the trend of economic globalization obvious, and the development of world trade in services has accelerated. Since the 1990s, France has been in the forefront of the export of services trade, which is in an advantageous position in the world.

In the early years, France's external economy was not very prosperous. But after World War II, in order to better develop the economy, France began to formulate measures to open up to the outside world and develop trade in services.

However, with the formation and development of the European Community, opening up the market to eu countries has become a development trend. Without opening up, it would be impossible to grasp the economic development opportunities and integrate into the market. Therefore, France began to open up its market to the outside world and trade in services quickly developed. At the same time, a series of laws were introduced, such as the code of monetary and financial laws regulating the behavior of foreign investment, as well as laws and regulations such as contract law that can restrict foreign investment, to provide fundamental protection for French trade in services. Subsequently, France continued to open up the service market, such as communications, banking, insurance and other sectors.

After joining WTO, France has made two kinds of commitments while opening up its service market: horizontal commitment and industrial commitment. Horizontal commitment, mainly aimed at service personnel and service model, means that France is open to five specific groups of people in 16 industries, but applies quotas in 11 industries. When France opened its service market, it made a clear commitment to publish a list of industries that are fully open, restricted and closed.

While implementing the liberalization policy in service trade, France has also formulated very strict regulatory laws and regulations to ensure the smooth progress of trade liberalization, which are mainly reflected in the WTO multilateral agreement, some eu regulations and multilateral bilateral agreements. As a member state of the European Union, the French regulatory system has the following characteristics:

In line with eu laws and regulations governing trade in services. The eu implements integrated and unified management in the economic aspect. As a member of the eu, France's market access, free trade area and other trade contents are consistent with the eu. France implements the common trade policy of the eu, and on the basis of common interests and the common policy of the eu, it revises its own laws and regulations to maintain consistency.

We should always adhere to the principle of exception in cultural services, so as to better protect our traditional culture and promote the long-term development of local cultural services. For a long time, France has always attached great importance to the inheritance and protection of its own culture. Therefore, in foreign trade, the supervision and protection of cultural service industry is stricter than that of other industries. Most of the trade in the service sector in France has always been in a free state, but the country insists on not opening up the cultural service industry. This can not only protect the excellent traditional culture of France, but also promote the development and prosperity of culture, which is worthy of our reference.

A sound legal system for trade supervision. In the legal system, laws concerning trade in services, such as the commercial code, which regulates commercial activities, include all commercial activities and trade in services also falls within its jurisdiction. As for the industries and personnel of foreign investment in service trade, there are also strict restrictions in the law. For example, in terms of financial investment, personnel from non-eu countries must meet certain conditions and the restrictions are relatively strict. In addition, foreign investment is restricted from entering strategic industries related to national security, so as to prevent some enterprises in these industries from being acquired by foreign investors in times of crisis.

The reason why France's service trade is so developed is not only its own mechanism, but also the perfection of laws and regulations, which can cover all industries of service trade and fully protect people's interests. In addition, the implementation of the law is carried out in strict accordance with legal procedures, fully transparent and open, and ensures that the law is fully under the supervision of the public. In addition, there is no conflict between laws, and each department can enforce laws and enact other regulations according to its own legal principles.

Relatively speaking, although China has promulgated and implemented a lot of laws and regulations on foreign service trade, such as maritime law and foreign-related relations law, there is still a long way to go for the improvement of laws and there is no complete system compared with France. Therefore, China needs to establish a perfect service trade legal system with complete contents covering the service field according to practical needs, so as to provide a legal basis for service trade.

From the perspective of a French trade in services, it has perfect management supervision system, the first is trade policy of the state administrative departments, the second is to undertake the coordination function of dispute resolution mechanism, again is industry self-policing within an organization, finally is a professional third party institution, supervision and cover all areas of trade in services, and make full use of the way of supervision. When there is a dispute, can at any time to report to the higher authorities for intervention and adjustment.

In this regard, China can learn from the mature experience of France to build a service trade supervision and management mechanism that includes third-party institutions, industry self-discipline, coordinating institutions and state organs. Practically speaking, it means that the state establishes a department in charge of service trade to give full play to the communication and coordination functions of the competent authorities, industry associations should give full play to self-discipline, and third-party professional institutions should play a supervisory function, so as to form a management and supervision system covering all levels of the society.

From the perspective of the development of service trade in France, although the service industry is highly open, it is strictly restricted in some special service fields, such as the protection measures of cultural service industry. This practice has great inspiration for our country. A country like France, which has developed economy and trade in services, is protecting its own culture. As a developing country, we should do the same.

In the world economy, China's service trade development is still not perfect, does not have the very strong competitive power, influenced by humongous and national economic policy, between various industries and regions in the development of trade in services is not balanced, so should according to the actual situation of the country, based on the principle of the WTO, the orderly opening of trade in services industry in our country. Cultural services, in particular, should be restricted as strictly as in France, so as to better protect excellent traditional culture.

As is known to all, France has many well-known brands in service trade. For example, in the retail industry, France has carrefour and auchan supermarkets, which are well-known all over the world. Compared with China, although we also have a lot of well-known advantage brand enterprises, but the scope is limited, in the global scope of the competitive advantage is not obvious. In this regard, we should focus on protecting and supporting the development of these brand enterprises and building well-known brands that belong to China. Make clear goal plan, make it maintain competitive advantage in the industry all the time. Play the role of leading enterprises, so that China's services can affect the world.

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