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English Social Institution

2019-08-12 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- English Social Institution,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国社会制度。英国是一个单一的君主民主制国家,其政府制度直接影响许多其他国家的政治制度,包括英联邦成员国。英国没有成文的宪法,但是宪法公约具有宪法的功能。各种各样的法规和习惯法构成了所谓的英国宪法。英国国家元首,理论上的最高权力拥有者是英国君主。2013年以来,英国启动了二战以来最激烈的社会保障改革,规范社会保障津贴,整合各种社会福利基金,不断完善NHS。英国目前面临的主要社会问题包括贫困、教育分化、劳动力市场分割和社会分层、医疗养老制度不完善、社会发展和政策变化以及社会福利制度改革带来的负面影响。

English Social Institution,英国社会制度,essay代写,作业代写,代写

There are many social institutions in the world. This part will choose the British as the target to analyze the social institution.

Britain is a unitary, monarchical democracy whose system of government directly affects the political systems of many other countries, including commonwealth members such as Canada, India, Australia and Jamaica. There is no written constitution in Britain, but the convention of the constitution has the function of the constitution. Various statutes and common laws make up the so-called British constitution. The British head of state and theoretically the ultimate holder of power is the British monarch. The queen holds only symbolic status, and her form of power is constrained by convention and popular opinion. But the monarch can basically exercise three important rights: the right to be consulted, the right to give advice, and the right to warn. The longer and more experienced and knowledgeable a monarch is in office, the more his opinions will be valued by the cabinet and the prime minister himself, and this communication between the monarch and the cabinet takes place in the weekly secret meetings. In fact, the person with the highest political power in Britain is the prime minister of the cabinet, and she must have the support of the house of Commons (Pumphrey, 1959).

In the 16th century, Britain benefited from the rapid expansion of trade and capital in the world, but it also caused problems in the early stage, such as the gap between the rich and the poor and the refugees. To this end, the British government made an attempt in terms of individual charity, church relief and local aid to the poor, and issued a series of laws to restrict the flow of refugees, prevent and alleviate the pressure of refugees, labor shortage and the resulting social instability. Among them, Henry's poor law, which was enacted in 1536, marked that Britain began to tackle social poverty through state action. This law contains the basic idea on which the poor law is based, and realizes the transformation from the previous purely punitive law to the combination of punishment and relief, which is of great significance in the history of poor aid in Britain.

In the 17th century, British society changed dramatically. The increasing number of refugees and the poor, the outbreak of the bourgeois revolution and the spread of the Puritan movement have not only impacted the society, but also changed the attitudes of the British society towards the people and the problem of poverty.18th-century Britain as a benefit from the enclosure movement, the industrial revolution, and shipbuilding and cannon technology developed, the rapid rise of its poor law also change accordingly, characterized by, started to strengthen the relief management work, establish Bingham relief system, the implementation of poor organization outside relief, relief object also extended to the whole family by the individual. In the 19th century, rapid technological progress and the global expansion of trade made Britain a world empire, but there were also social crises within it -- the replacement of manual labor by machines led to the unemployment of a large number of handicraftsmen and the increasing poverty. The British government implemented the establishment of the poor law commission, the establishment of workhouses, the management of poor law managers at all levels. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, social problems in Britain were more serious than ever before. Besides poverty, unemployment, health and old age were also increasingly serious. Under this background, Britain began to establish insurance systems in various fields, thus the modern social security system was established and developed. In the middle and late 20th century, under the impact of the economic crisis and the two world wars, Britain's social problems continued to take on a serious trend, and unemployment and poverty once again drew attention. In particular, in the process of reflecting on the traditional policies, the British thinkers are gradually inclined to a series of propositions put forward by keynesians and social Democrats to promote full employment and develop the social security system. Among them, the release of beveridge report and the rise of welfare state, which laid the foundation for the construction of modern social security system, is of epoch-making significance (Crang, 2000).

Since 2013, Britain has launched the most drastic social security reform since the second world war, regulating social security allowance, integrating various social welfare funds and constantly improving the NHS. The main social problems facing Britain at present include poverty, education differentiation, labor market segmentation and social stratification, imperfect medical and pension systems, social development and policy changes as well as negative effects brought by the reform of social welfare system (Scruton, none).

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